Product design: Graphic products- Unit 3- Systems and control

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Systems and control
1. Manufacturing systems
What is quick response manufacturing?
QRM turns a company into one that responds to actual customer demand rather than planning for an expected
demand that may or may not happen.
What concepts does it involve?
Total quality management, just-in-time and manufacturing cells. Its main aim is to increase overall flexibility and
responsiveness of the company
What is the process involved?
The manufacturer would begin production as soon as an order is initiated. Suppliers deliver raw materials directly to
the production line, the product is manufactured and the finished goods would flow directly to a waiting truck for
What are 4 advantages of QRM?
Less money needed to run the factory because fewer raw materials and goods are stocked.
Better position increase market share as quicker response times may attract new clients.
Increased turnover of stock production systems are triggered by demand.
Smaller batches are often produced resulting in lower storage costs
Reducing the cost of quality but minimising waste and by giving more responsibility to production teams.
What are 4 disadvantages of QRM?
Increased reliance on suppliers to react to demand and quickly accommodate production schedules
Poor supply could result in a manufactures ability to meet customer requirements.
Large variations in demand could cause problems in demand if manufacture cannot react to the high
production volume efficiently.
Managing and implementing change required can be very difficult as QRM changes the roles and
responsibilities of employees.
What is current manufacturing about?
All of the key people who work at each stage of the design and manufacturing process working together to make
sure that changes to one part of the process will not require changes to be made to another. In this way designs
become right first time.
What are the 4 advantages of concurrent manufacturing systems?
Reduces development time and enables the earlier release of new products.
By the teams working together, differences are more easily dealt with early in design and production,
making the design process quicker and more efficient as, ideally, no re-design is necessary and manufacture
can start earlier.
It improves product quality
Enhance customer satisfaction
What are flexible manufacturing systems?
Where several machines are linked together by a material-handling system such as computer-controlled robot or
conveyor system. It brings together new manufacturing technologies such as CNC or robotics to form an integrated
system. It is different from an automated production time line because of its ability to process more than one type of
product at the same time.
What is machine flexibility?
It involves the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types and the ability to change the order of
operations carried out.

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What is routing flexibility?
It involves the ability to use several machines at the same time to perform the same operation on a part thus
increasing the speed of production. Also, these systems can readily adapt to changes in the production such as
volume or size.
What are the advantages of FMSs?
High flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like time and effort in order to manufacture a new
product. This flexibility allows the system to react quickly to changes in production.…read more

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Improved control due to efficient management systems that assure everyone is working from the most
current data.
What are enterprise resource planning systems?
They attempt to combine all the software and data from various departments into one system that all can use.
What are 2 advantages of ERP systems?
Improves the way in which a company takes a customer's order and processes it into an invoice.
Employees in the different departments all see the same information and can update it instantly.…read more

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It restricts the supply of materials and components until they are needed, which provides an effective JIT
What is Kaisen?
Knows as continuous improvement, where small changes are made to the production process resulting in small
improvements being made.
Why is it often carried out on a regular basis?
The changes made are often low cost and the improvements made tend to be small.
What do manufacturing cells allow?
They allow manufactures to provide their customers with the right product at the right time.…read more

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How does it work?
Within CIM, the transportation of materials and components to the required points is controlled by a computer. All
stocks of materials and components are stored in racking systems. The ASRS systems will select the correct
component from the rack, retrieve it by means of a crane and place it on a conveyor or onto an automatic guided
vehicle for transportation. Once completed, products are taken to a warehouse and from there they are distributed.…read more

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What is A.I?
A machine with artificial intelligence, it exhibits human intelligence and behaviour and can demonstrate the ability to
learn and adapt through experience.
What have scientist struggled to do with robots?
They have struggled to get robots to carry put simple cognitive tasks.
Why are expert systems called expert systems?
Expert systems are so called because of their ability to process large amounts of information and seemingly make
decisions which are similar to humans. They are based upon logic systems.…read more


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