Revision note for population geography

Complete for the WJEC course with appropriate case studies and facts

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Population revision notes
Population change is usually due to one of two factors; Natural change and net migration. Natural
change reflects the balance between birth-rates and death rates, an imbalance causes population
change. These change as seen bellow
Fertility (Birth rates) Effect Mortality (death rates)
Higher when there are more Age structure Raised by an aging population
people in the reproductive
age range
Lowered by seeing children Development Raised by poor living conditions
as a burden rather than an caused by a lack of
asset caused by more development
Raised by traditions that Culture Maintained by reluctance to
value large families change life style
Lowered by awareness of Education Lowered by greater awareness
family planning caused by of health risks caused by
greater education greater education
Lowered when governments Policy Lowered by governments that
aim to lower population aim to improve healthcare and
growth education
Population pyramids show age and gender in a graphical way to compare, different populations have
different pyramids which can be used to show what stage on the demographic transition model the
country are on, below is an outline of the stages and what the pyramids looks like.
Stage one - High birth and death rate so wide at the bottom tapering steeply and very
narrow at the top. The sides are concave
Stage two- Death rates falling so widening at the top but the base is still wide from high birth
Stage three- Birth rates start to fall leading to thinning at the base with the top further
widening so the graph looks more uniform
Stage four- With both the low morality rates and fertility rates the graph becomes higher
and more uniform in shape
Stage 5- The top widens and the pyramid grows in height due to an aging population
Birth-rate per 1000 - death rate per 1000= natural increase/decrease. High growth rates are around
3 or 4% with low rates being closer to 0. The doubling time of a country is the amount of time
relative to natural increase it taxes for the population to double. At 2% NI it is 35 years and at 3% it is
24 years. Replacement level fertility is 2.1 children per set of parents as this is the figure needed to
replace the whole adult population, the .1 is to account for child mortality. The general fertility rate is
the number of births per 1000 women between 15 and 45 and the maternal mortality rate is the
numbers of mothers who die during child birth. This is low in Europe and high in Africa.
Highest country Lowest country
Birth rate Niger+ Gambia (46) Monaco (6)
Death rate Dem Congo and Guinea Bissau (17) Qatar and UAE (1)
Total Fertility rate Niger (7.1) Taiwan and Latvia (1.1)
Natural increase Mayotte (3.8) Latvia and Bulgaria (-0.5%)

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The world's population is unevenly distributed with the top 10 most populated countries having 60%
of the population but only 40% of the land area. The most densely populated country in the world is
Bangladesh with 953 people per km2. Distribution of population is how it is spread out and density is
how many per square kilometre.…read more

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Not all countries it the demographic transition model. China for example doesn't fit for a number of
government policies. During the early 1950s China modernised leading to death rates falling but in
the late 50s early 60s birth rates fell dramatically as death rats dramatically rose. This was the policy
called the great leap forward that rushed industrialisation and took farmers from the land to the
factories. This meant food production fell leading to famine.…read more

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The source region of migration is where people migrate from and the host region is where they
migrate to.
Other characteristics include; Distance, direction, volume , cause, motivation and economic reasons.
Circulation is very short term migration such as for tourism or shopping.…read more

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Kurdish refugees fleeing persecution in the middle east . Countries like Iraq
where in 1988 the Anfal campaign ethnically cleansed 182,000 kurds including the infamous chemical
weapons attack on the town of Halabja killing 5000 people. After the collapse of an Uprising 1.5
million Kurds fled to Iran and Turkey and it is estimated 1.5 million died on the journey through narrow
mountain roads with sheer drops at the side due to exposure and exhaustion. Kurds have also been
persecuted in Turkey, Iran and Syria.…read more

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To combat many economic and social problems government are discouraging early
retirements.…read more

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This has meant Gambia has maintained low levels (2%) compared to the rest of frica where
74% of all aids cases live.…read more


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