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Hydrology topic case studies revision

Boscastle, South West England August 2004:

Causes of flooding:

89mm rain fell in an hour
Confluence of rivers Valency and Jordan
Topography-land acted as a funnel
Already saturated ground
Steep hills and intercepting valleys
Narrow river channel
No preparation or warning

Impacts of flooding:…

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Planting of trees in Nepal
12-15 storm basins developed
7 metre high embankments built
Pumping of water to create storage for monsoon

Mississippi Flood management:

Shortened course of river by 300km
Built 6 dams to create 1600km chain of 105 reservoirs
Planted trees
Strengthened levees
Built overflow channels for…

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Water can be used to generate electricity

SOFT Strategies:

Schemes that do not involve engineering e.g. replanting trees cheaper and involves local people,
good for the environment

HARD Strategies

Use of hard engineering e.g. dams, usually expensive and not good for the environment




Hydrological processes:
Precipitation can have varying…

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Soil moisture levels depend on soil texture:
1. Free draining (gravel)
2. Absorbs water easily (Crumb structure)
3. Fine clay soils easily become saturated
Ground water accounts for nearly 25% of all freshwater on earth and is the major
supplier of river flow
Below the water table, water is…

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Drainage basin characteristics (A drainage basin is an area drained by a river and its
tributaries)
BBC Online article AND extreme UK floods booklet focused on :
the causes, impacts and comparison of UK floods to the world e.g. The UK floods are
insignificant compared to the fact that…

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