Population Policies

My notes on several different population policies...

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  • Created by: Kirsty
  • Created on: 05-05-14 11:09
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Population Policies
Pro-natalist policies
`underpopulation'
E.g. France 1920's and 1950's
E.g. Nazi Germany and fascist Italy
Military Strength- India Vs. Pakistan- India higher population, more military strength
Stimulate and strengthen economy- Malaysia target 2020 population of 50 million
Anti Natal policies
Education
Provision of family planning
Incentives, particularly tax wise
Social pressure
Propaganda
Coercion
India 1970's- forced sterilisation
Chinas 1980's- One child Policy
One-Child Policy- China
1970 average woman in china had almost 6 six children, she now has two- fertility rate is
down to 1.55.
Population in 1979 was 972 million and its population was expected to peak to 1.46 billion in
2030. Current population 1.243 billion
Most dramatic changes took place between 1970 and 1980 when the birth-rate dropped
from 44 per 1000 to 18 per 1000
Demographers have stated that the ideal birth rate for china is 16.7 per 1000 or 1.7 children
per family
Decline in death rate because China weren't involved in any conflicts and healthcare had
improved.
Communist government banned both the use of contraception and the importation of it
because they were happy to accept a largely growing communist population and thought it
would be useful to them for production.
When the population began to take a toll on the food supply of China, an anti-natal policy
was put in.
Only applies to Han Chinese (91% of the population) in urban areas of china, doesn't apply to
ethnic minorities.
If a couple get married and they were both single children they are allowed to have a second
child, if a child is born with major birth defects or health problems couples may have a second
child
China expected to achieve 0% growth rate by 2025 because of one child policy
China's sex balance more imbalanced than global average at 113 boys to 100 girls
http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1912861,00.html
- http://geography.about.com/od/chinamaps/a/China-One-Child-Policy-Facts.htm
Population control in China under Mao

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Mao did nothing to reduce China's expanding population which doubled under his leadership. He
believed that birth control was a capitalist plot to weaken the country and make it vulnerable to
attack. He also liked to say `every mouth comes with two hands attached'. For a while Mao urged
Chinese to have lots of children to support his "human wave" defence policy when he feared attack
from the United States and the Soviet Union.…read more

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China-should-move-to-two-child-policy.ht
ml
http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/chinese-tank-urges-end-child-policy-17604476
It was thought that China's population would have continue to decline due to a falling birth
rate without the one child policy
Some people suggest that if the population policy had not been put in place China would hav
experienced a much faster decline in population
It is also suggested with the modernisation of Asian countries such as China that couples
would have decided to have less children anyway regardless of the government policy.…read more

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Education was important as if people weren't educated and couldn't read, then propaganda posters
to tell them to have fewer children etc.
Kerala now has a literacy rate of over 90%
Lowest infant mortality in India, highest life expectancy in India
Lowest rate of population growth in India
Kenya population policies
Since Kenya's independence in 1963, high fertility, combined with declining mortality, gave Kenya
one of the world's fastest population growth rates in the 70's and 80's.…read more

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The Singaporean population was also encouraged to delay marriage and marry later in the
hopes of having less children
Women were also looked down upon if they had a third child or more and their third child
could not get priority in school unless the mother presented a sterilisation certificate.
Delivery fees were higher for a third child but were reduced if a sterilisation certificate was
presented.…read more

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Singaporean public and the
increase in immigration has been met with a very xenophobic reaction. (Anon., 2010)
For a while the `three or more' policy was effective, causing a fluctuating but rising birth rate
to 1.6 children in 1987 until the 1990's, 1.5 in 1998, back to 1.6 in 2000 and then a new low
birth rate at 1.41 in 2001. Although for a while there was a rise in the birth rate it was still
under the replacement level of 2.…read more

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Baby Bonus of $3,000 cash for their first child, up to $9,000 cash and
matching contributions for their second child, and up to $18,000 cash and matching
contributions if the baby is a third or fourth child. The accelerated disbursement of the cash
component over two years give parents more immediate support, as costs are generally
higher when the child is younger. The cash can be used for infant care, childcare and
kindergarten expenses.…read more

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However many politicians were unwilling to take up the issue of family planning and so no
new policy was developed. Also in Delhi, central policies were abandoned to do with family
planning services and supplies. However some states such as Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan
designed their own programs in which targets were not abandoned.…read more

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The project also found that by setting up women's clubs and involving women in community
wide family planning activities was a successful method of getting women to accept family
planning as well and so the government decided to set a women's club up in every village in
the state.
Project for community action in family planning use voluntary groups such as women's clubs
to help set up distribution sites for condoms and birth control pills.…read more

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Price of housing was increased (especially in the Northern cities)- very difficult for young
adults to set up their own home
4. Fewer well paid but low skilled jobs
5.…read more

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