Population Change: Population Policies

What population policies are in existence around the world?

Refers to AQA AS Geography (Chapter 5 - Population Change)

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  • Created by: Bethany
  • Created on: 06-04-13 10:39
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  • Population Policies
    • A wide range of social policies aiming at controlling population growth have been introduced around the world.
      • Anti-Natalist: Aim to tackle rapid population growth by reducing fertility e.g. China One Child Policy.
      • Pro-Natalist: Designed to increase population for economic and/ or political reasons e.g. Russia/ Romania 1980s and France after WWII. May be voluntary or imposed.
      • Controlling Immigration e.g. Australia/ USA
      • Encouraging emigration e.g. Indonesia transmigration.
      • Indirect Influence: Fiscal measures such as child allowances/ tax concessions for young, married couples.
    • Thailand
      • 1969: Women averaged 6.5 children each. Only 16% used contraception. Population growth = 3% per year.
      • 1970: Nationwide family planning program began including free contraception, trained specialists and government campaigns.
      • 1999: Women averaged 1.7 children each, 72% used contraception. Population growth = 0.8% per year.
      • Community based policy.
    • The Philippines
      • 83% Roman Catholic so opposition for birth control has countered government encouragement of contraception.
      • 1999: 47% used contraception. 3.4 children each, population growth rate = 1.7% per year.
      • 2027: Population expected to double.
      • The government is instead trying to increase food production and encouraging out-migration.
    • The Chinese 'One-Child' Policy
      • The Chinese government initially became concerned in the mid 20th century that China could only have rising living standards if population was controlled.
      • 1950-59: The philosophy was that 'a large population gives a strong nation' so children encouraged, but in 1959, a serious famine (many deaths)
      • 1960-73: Post-famine population boom. increased by 55 million every year, yet nothing done.
      • 1974-79: Policy change and reduction in birth rate was encouraged through later marriage, longer gaps between children and fewer children.
      • 1979 -90: The 'later, longer., fewer' policy failed, so in 1979, the government introduced the one-child policy, placing strict limits on who could have children and when. Even enforced abortion and sterilisation became common. Successful in urban areas but less in rural, where disobedience was common.
      • 1990 +: Slightly relaxed policy, as government became concerned about ageing population.
      • 2006: Annual growth rate 0.6%, fertility rate 1.6. More health-orientated policy with emphasis on mother and child welfare.
      • By 2050: Aiming to stabilise population growth.


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