Plan for a Past Paper Question

With mark scheme and question on division within opposition to tsardom. Hope this helps :)

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How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of Tsarist Rule in
the years 18811905?
The question is focused on the challenges mounted to Tsarist rule in the given
period, and the extent to which divisions among opposition groups contributed
to their failure. Answers may consider the four main strands of opposition,
their internal divisions and their intolerance of each other. A tradition of
revolutionary activity was established by the Populists and their appeal to the
peasants, though they were weakened by the assassination of Alexander II and
the repression established by Alexander III. The Social Revolutionaries tried to
gain support among both peasants and townspeople, but were divided
between
anarchists and revolutionaries. The Social Democrats split into Bolsheviks and
Mensheviks at the 1903 Congress, while the Liberals did not establish
distinctive parties until after the 1905 Revolution. A simple description of some
of the revolutionary parties will be marked within Levels 1 and 2, and
progression will depend on the range and depth of relevant material.
Responses at Level 3 will begin to address causation but may include
significant descriptive or narrative material. At Level 4 candidates will offer
reasonable range and depth of appropriate material and will address reasons
for the failure of effective opposition to Tsardom, such as the role of the
Okhrana, police and army. Those who can offer some evaluation of the failure
of the reformers and revolutionaries, will access Level 5.
The Mark Scheme:
Section Details
Introduction Repressive nature of Alexander III's
reign & Industrialization led to
opposition from almost every section of
society
Largely unsuccessful -> Division, Size,
Okrahna, police and army

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How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of Tsarist Rule in
the years 18811905?
1 ­ Divisions WERE responsible Three main parties -> populists, liberals,
Marxists -> V. different aims ->
Impossible for them to work together
Populists ­ Democractic Socialist
Republic-> Grew into the Socialist
Revolutionaries -> Split between
Anarchists (wanted to continue to use
the assassination tactics of populism)
and the Revolutionaries (mod.…read more

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How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of Tsarist Rule in
the years 18811905?
Many leaders were in exile -> Difficult to
communicate with the party in Russia as
communications were poor/1905
revolution
The army & police remained loyal to the
Tsar in the 1905 revolution -> easily
crushed the opposition
Conclusion The parties were weak for a no.…read more

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