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Chapter 8- The 'Great Retreat' ­ women, family and
education in Stalin's Russia

In 1936 -> stalin announced that the soviet ppl were the first in history to
live free from exploitation. This was based on the 5 year plans and
collectivisation = NO CAPITALISM IN RUSSIA
he overlooked exploitation's…

Page 2

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Doctors who terminated and husbands who pressured to terminate
could be sent to prison for 2 years.

Making homes
· women were expected to be responsible for household chores (as well
as working in farms / industry)
had to shop, cook, clean, take care of children..
Although men had been…

Page 3

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· value was re-emphasised during 1930s
· reintroduce romance and glamour to to institution of marriage.
· Wedding rings ­ banned in 1928 ­ reintroduced in 1936
· 1936 ­ marriage certificated printed on high quality paper to symbolise
the importance of union.
· Communist husbands ­ expected to be…

Page 4

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Press also played its part in hounding men who had destroyed their
· there was some support for women; but only those who were prepared
to conform to the role of wife and mother

Education under Stalin
· stalin ­ discipline, hard work and tradition should be reassured :…

Page 5

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Party congress of feb 34 was declared the Congress of victors. All celebrated
Stalins great achievements thorough his industrial policy. Zinoviev, Kamenev
and Bukharin said that Stalin was the leader of genius. Final day of the
conference ¼ of the part voted against Stalin so he started seeing them all…

Page 6

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The Congress of Victors
· intended to be a celebration of Stalins economic achievements
· congress worried stalin
when congress voted to elect the Central Committee Kirov topped
the poll
k ­ 1,225 votes
s- 927 votes
group of old bolsheviks approached Kirov after the votes and tried to

Page 7

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· he had a good reason for wanted Kirov out of Moscow
1932 ­ Kirov had helped defeat him on an important issue
concerning Mikhail Riutin ­ circulated a document highly critical of
stalin wanted his execution but the Politburo and Central committee
refused to order it.
They argued…

Page 8

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1st time that NKVD had turned against the Communist Party

· Communists had always used terror but the great terror was something
· for the 1st time it was inspired by the paranoia of the leader
· it attacked the ruling party
· Terror under Stalin was…

Page 9

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· second show trial dealt with Trotsky's former allies
· charges : plotting with foreign powers, terrorism, sabotage and contact
with Trotsky
· It was the 1st product of Nicolai Yezhov's 'conveyor belt system' of
sleep deprivation
questioning relentlessly till defendants confessed
· 13/17 executed, 4 sent to…

Page 10

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· Trial eliminated all those who claimed to be close to Lenin and
therefore had an authority that was independent of Stalin

Radicalisation of the NKVD
· 36 and 27 ­ new beginning for NKVD
· Yagoda replaced by more radical Nicolai Yezhov.
· Yagoda next to Bukharin and Rykov…


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