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Conduction is the way in which thermal energy is
transferred in solids
Metals are good conductors of heat as they allow energy
to spread through them quickly
Non ­ metals are thermal insulators, they do not allow
energy to spread through them quickly
Energy is transferred from a hotter to a cooler part
without movement of the object itself
Energy is transferred by :
Atoms bumping into other atoms, passing on Kinetic energy…read more

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Free electrons moving through metals
Metals are excellent conductors
Stone, concrete, brick and glass are reasonable conductors
Plastic, rubber and wood are all insulators
Convection is the way thermal energy is transferred in
fluids ­ liquids and gases
As the fluid is heated its particles moves faster so :
It expands
Becomes less dense
Rises up and is replaces by colder, denser fluid
This is a convection current
1cm 1cm…read more

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There will be fewer particles in each cm of gas so it is
less dense and rises up
Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy waves
These waves can travel through a vacuum, it is how heat
reaches us from the sun
All objects emit and absorb radiation
The hotter the objects the more energy it radiates
Good emitters are also good absorbers of radiation, in general :
Black surfaces are better emitters and absorbers than
white surfaces
Matt surfaces are better emitters and…read more

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The fibre inside is an insulator so prevents conduction
It also traps air so prevents convection
Payback period
Payback period is the time it takes to pay for the insulation
from the savings made on fuel bills
Insulation Cost in Annual Payback time in
£ saving in £ years
Cavity Wall Insulation 600 30 20
Double glazing 3000 60 50
Draught ­ proofing 440 2 2
Loft Insulation 400 80 5
Jacket for hot ­ water 15 15 1
tank…read more

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