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Representing and Measuring Motion
· For an object moving at a steady speed, the distance it travels and the time it takes are related as
Speed = distance travelled (metre, m) ¸ time taken (second, s)
(metre/second, m/s) (metre, m) (second, s)
· When an object moves in a straight line, how far it is from a certain point can be represented by
a distancetime graph.…read more

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Forces and Acceleration
· In general, objects experience one or more physical forces acting on them. The individual forces
are combined, taking into account size and direction, to give an unbalanced or resultant force
which acts in a particular direction.
· This unbalanced force will affect the movement of the object.…read more

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Frictional Forces and Nonuniform Motion
· A force of friction acts when an object moves through air or water, or when solid surfaces slide
(or tend to slide) across each other. The direction of this force of friction is always opposite to
the direction in which the object or surface is moving. Friction causes objects to heat up and to
wear away at their surfaces.
· The friction between solid surfaces is used in brakes which slow down and stop moving
vehicles.…read more

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Work, Energy and Power
· When a force moves an object through a certain distance, energy is transferred and work is
work done = energy transferred = force applied ´ distance moved in direction of force
(joule, J) (newton, N) (metre, m)
· Power is the rate of energy transfer (by force or heating). The greater the power, the more
energy is transferred in a given time.…read more

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Gravitational Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy
· Gravitational potential energy (GPE) is the energy stored by an object because of the height to
which the object has been lifted against the force of gravity. Lifting an object at a steady speed
requires a force equal to the weight of the object:
Weight = mass × gravitational field strength
(newton, N) (kilogram, kg) (newtons per kilogram, N/kg)
· On Earth, the gravitational field strength is about 10 N/kg, i.e.…read more

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· Momentum is proportional to both the mass and the velocity of on object. Momentum has both
magnitude (size) and direction, and is therefore, like velocity, a vector quantity.…read more

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Atomic Structure
· atoms have a small central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons around which there are
· the mass number or nucleon number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
· the atomic number or proton number is the number of protons in the nucleus. In a neutral atom,
this is also the number of electrons.…read more

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Types of Radioactivity
· Radioactivity occurs as a result of changes in the nuclei of atoms. Radioactive isotopes
(radioisotopes or radionuclides) are atoms with unstable nuclei. Unstable nuclei can decay by
emitting a radioactive particle, either alpha (a), beta (b) or gamma (g). The nucleus formed as a
result of the decay has less energy and is therefore more stable. The excess energy is carried off
by the radioactive particle as kinetic energy.…read more

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Properties and Uses of Radioactivity
· Radioactivity is a random process in that we cannot say for sure whether one particular nucleus
will decay in the next second. However, the number of nuclei and hence the activity (i.e.…read more


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