Further Physics Revision Notes

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Further Physics
Turning forces
Moments
The moment of a force (F) about a pivot is F X d, where d is the perpendicular distance from
the pivot to the line of action of the force.
Centre of mass
The centre of mass of an object is the point where its mass may be thought to be
concentrated.
When a suspended object is in equilibrium, its centre of mass is directly beneath the
point of suspension.
The centre of mass of a symmetrical object is along the axis of symmetry.
Stability
The stability of an object is increased by making its base as wide as possible, and its
centre of mass as low as possible.
An object will tend to topple over if the line of action of its weight is outside its base.
A bus being tilt-tested to see how much it can tilt without toppling.
Circular motion
For an object moving in a circle at constant speed:
o The object accelerates continuously towards the centre of the circle,
o The centripetal force* needed increases:
As the mass or the speed of the object increases,
As the radius of the circle decreases.
Any object moving in a circle must be acted on by a resultant force that acts towards the
centre of the circle. The resultant force is a centripetal force because it always acts towards
the centre of the circle.
Gravitational attraction
The force of gravity between two objects:
o Is an attractive force,
o Is bigger the greater the mass of each object is,
o Is smaller the greater the distance between the two objects is.
Planetary orbits
To stay in orbit at a particular distance, a small body must move at a particular speed
around a larger body.
The larger an orbit is, the longer the orbiting body takes to go round the orbit.

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Satellites
A satellite in a geostationary orbit has a period of 24 hours and stays at the same
position directly above the Earth's equator.
Geostationary orbits are usually used for communication satellites.
Monitoring satellites are usually in low polar orbits.
Light and sound
Reflection
The normal at a point on a mirror is perpendicular to the mirror.…read more

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A concave mirror when the object is place beyond the point of curvature. The image formed
is real and inverted.
A concave mirror when the object is placed between the mirror and the focal point. The
image formed in enlarged, upright and virtual.
Refraction
Refraction of light is the change of direction of a light ray when it crosses a boundary
between two transparent substances.
o If the speed is reduced, refraction is towards the normal (e.g. air to glass).…read more

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Lenses
A real image is formed by a converging lens if the object is further away from the
principal focus.
A virtual image is formed by a diverging lens and by a converging lens if the object is
nearer than the principal focus.
Using Lenses
A converging lens.
The principle ray is parallel to the axis and is refracted through f.
The central ray passes straight through the centre of the lens.
The focal ray passes through f and is refracted parallel to the axis.…read more

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Electromagnetism
The motor effect
When a current is passed along a wire in a magnetic field, a force may be exerted on
the wire. This effect is known as the motor effect.
In the motor effect, the force:
o Is increased if the current or the strength if the magnetic field is increased,
o Is at right angles to the direction of the magnetic field and to the wire,
o Is reversed if the direction of the current or the magnetic field is reversed.…read more

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The life history of a star
A low mass star
A high mass star
A high mass star follows the same path as the low mass star up until the white dwarf
stage. Then it goes from:
How the chemical elements formed
Elements as heavy as iron are formed inside stars as a result of nuclear fusion.
Elements heavier than iron are formed in supernovas.…read more

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