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Further Physics
Turning forces
Moments
The moment of a force (F) about a pivot is F X d, where d is the perpendicular distance from
the pivot to the line of action of the force.

Centre of mass
The centre of mass of an object is the point where its…

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Satellites
A satellite in a geostationary orbit has a period of 24 hours and stays at the same
position directly above the Earth's equator.
Geostationary orbits are usually used for communication satellites.
Monitoring satellites are usually in low polar orbits.





Light and sound
Reflection
The normal at a point on…

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A concave mirror when the object is place beyond the point of curvature. The image formed
is real and inverted.






A concave mirror when the object is placed between the mirror and the focal point. The
image formed in enlarged, upright and virtual.

Refraction
Refraction of light is the change…

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Lenses
A real image is formed by a converging lens if the object is further away from the
principal focus.
A virtual image is formed by a diverging lens and by a converging lens if the object is
nearer than the principal focus.

Using Lenses




A converging lens.

The principle…

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Electromagnetism
The motor effect
When a current is passed along a wire in a magnetic field, a force may be exerted on
the wire. This effect is known as the motor effect.
In the motor effect, the force:
o Is increased if the current or the strength if the magnetic…

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The life history of a star
A low mass star




A high mass star
A high mass star follows the same path as the low mass star up until the white dwarf
stage. Then it goes from:




How the chemical elements formed
Elements as heavy as iron are formed inside…

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