# P1- Revision Questions

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What does geocentric mean?
The model of the universe that has the Earth in the centre. This theory lasted until the 18th century.
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Who devised the geocentric model?
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Why didn't Copernicus' model of the universe include Uranus, Neptune and Pluto?
All of the telescopes at the time were not good enough to see as far as Uranus, Neptune or Pluto.
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Which planet's moons did Galileo observe?
Jupiter, he discovered it had 4 moons and had it's own orbit. This led to his theory about the heliocentric model.
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What does 'refract' mean?
Light rays change direction as they pass into a different medium.
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Which way do light rays bend through a convex lens?
Together at a converging point.
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Who developed the heliocentric model of the universe?
Copernicus developed the heliocentric model. Galileo developed evidence that backed up Copernicus' theory.
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If an object was 2 focal lengths in front of a lens, how would the image appear?
The image would be inverted.
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What type of lenses are used in telescopes?
Converging.
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Which of the following are longitudinal waves? Microwaves, Light waves, Sound Waves
Sound Waves. Light waves and Microwaves are both transverse waves.
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What is the frequency of a wave?
The number of waves passing a point every second.
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If a wave had a wavelength of 5m and a frequency of 100Hz. What is the wave speed?
500m/s. Wave speed = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m) : 5 x 100 = 500 metres per second.
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What does the angle of incdience equal in a reflection from a plane mirror?
The angle of reflection. I=R.
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Which of the following has the longest wavelength? Red Light, Yellow Light, Violet Light.
Red Light.
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Who discovered Infrared?
William Herschel (1738-1822) The temperature he measured was highest at the red end of the spectrum where there was no visible light.
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Which of the following has the highest frequency? Radiowaves, Microwaves, Gamma rays
Gamma Rays.
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Which type of UV radiation causes most damage to skin cells?
UV C causes severe damage to cells.
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What is the use of Microwaves?
Communicating, on mobile phones and through sattelites.
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Radiation that can knock electrons out of atoms.
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Which type of radiation is the least penetrating?
Alpha, it can be stopped (absorbed) by a sheet of paper).
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Which type of radiation travels the furthest in air?
Gamma, it can only be stopped by centimetres of lead or many metres of concrete.
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What orbits what in the Solar System?
Every planet, asteroid star etc. has its own orbit around the Sun.
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What is a planet's year?
The time it takes to make a full orbit.
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What was the SETI project designed to do?
Search for life on other planets.
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About how many galaxies are there in the Universe?
Billions.
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What does SETI stand for?
The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence.
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What is a 'spectrometer'?
It is a tool that can split light into a spectrum of it's colours.
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What is the name of our Galaxy?
The Milky Way (Galaxy-Chocolate-Milky Way)
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What is the order of the first four planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
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What keeps the planets in their orbits?
The gravitational pull of the Sun.
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What are dwarf planets?
Stars that are too small to be considered a planet. e.g Pluto.
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What is the Big Bang theory?
The theory that states that about 13,700 million years ago all the matter in the universe was concentrated into a single point and expanded (bang) to create the Earth as we know it.
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What type of star is more likely to create a black hole?
Heavyweight Stars.
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Approximatley how long has our Sun been shining for?
5 billion years. Half of it's cycle which is expected to be around 10 million years.
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What type of star is our sun?
Yellow dwarf
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What does red-shift indicate?
Distant galaxies are moving away from us and the furthera galaxy is the faster it is moving away.
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How does a star remain hot?
Nuclear reactions.
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What is a galaxy?
A collection of stars held together by the force of gravity.
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Which theory of the universe is CMB used to explain?
The big bang theory
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What is a nebula?
A nebula is a cloud of dust and gases from which a star forms
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What happened to the density of a nebula when a star forms?
The density of a nebula increases as a star forms
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In the formation of a star what do hydrogen nuclei fuse to form?
Helium
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What is the average lifespan of stars?
10 billion years
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What does a massive star form when it has fused it's available hydrogen and helium?
Red supergiant
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What is formed when a massive star begins to collapse and then explode?
Supernova
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When is a neutron star formed?
The remains of a massive star have low density
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When is a black hole formed?
The remains of a massive star have high density
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Why can't light escape from a black hole?
The gravitational pull is too strong
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About how long ago do scientists believe the universe began?
13,700 million years ago
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Which is the main scientific theory for the origin of the universe?
The big bang theory.
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Which piece of evidence supports the Big Bang theory?
The evidence that more distant galaxies are moving the quickest supports the Big Bang theory.
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What material have scientists suggested explains some of the unexpected observations of the universe?
Dark Matter
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What is the name for the change in the light emitted by a moving object?
Red-Shift
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What sort of frequency will a high pitched sound have?
High
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Which of the following is not a use of ultrasound? Imaging of unborn children, Quality control checks in industry, Security scanning of bank notes
Security scanning of bank notes
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What is the frequency of infrasound?
Below 20Hz
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What type of waves are sound waves?
Longitudinal Waves
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What is the Earth's outer core made of?
The outer core is made of liquid nickel and iron.
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How do tectonic plates move?
From the movement of convection current is the mantle.
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Which of the following is the correct properties of an S wave?
An S wave is transverse, slow moving and can travel through solids only. An S wave is slow moving and can travel through solids only but it is a transverse wave.
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What is the process called that is used to locate the epicentre of an earthquake?
Triangulation is the name given to the process locating an earthquake as three seismometers are used.
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What causes seismic waves?
Movements inside the earths crust.
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What is the epicentre?
Point on the earth directly above the focus of an earthquake.
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Which wave would reach a seismometer first?
P - Primary Wave
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Which type of wave is longitudinal?
P- Primary is Longitudinal
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What happens to waves as they reach the boundaries of rock types?
Waves are both reflected and refracted at boundaries of rock types.
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What part of the Earth's structure is liquid and what is solid?
The outer core is liquid. The crust is solid.
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Starting at the centre of the Earth, What is the correct order for the structure of the Earth?
core --> mantle --> crust.
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Can S and P waves travel through the outer core?
S waves cannot pass through the outer core.
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What type of current is electricity from the mains?
Mains supply is alternating current.
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Which of the following is a way to increase an induced current?
Move the magnet more quickly.
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What is a disadvantage of using a dynamo on a bike?
When the bike stops the light goes off.
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What is an example of a renewable energy source?
Geothermal Energy
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What is an example of a fuel that adds to the greenhouse effect?
Oil, it is a fossil fuel so will add to the greenhouse effect
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Approximately how much energy is transferred as useful energy to the customers from a power station?
About a third of the energy.
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Which fossil fuel generates the most amount of carbon dioxide when it is burnt?
Coal generates the most carbon dioxide.
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Why are high voltage power lines used?
Improves efficiency by reducing heat loss.
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What is an example of something that does not use step down transformers used?
Microwave ovens do not use step down transformers.
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What voltage do power stations produce electricity at?
Powerstations produce electricity at 25 000V.
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What is a transformer?
A device that can change a current
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Why is the voltage increased in the national grid?
Less energy is wasted that way
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Calculate the output voltage from 100 turns in the primary coil with 12V AC and 200 turns in the secondary coil?
Voltage(primary) x Turns(secondary)/Turns(primary) = Voltage (secondary)which is 24.
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At what voltage is electricity sent around the country in the national grid?
400kV
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At what voltage is electricity supplied to the home?
Electricity is supplied to the home at 230V
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What type of transformer converts the voltage as it comes into the home?
Step down
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What is the unit for current?
Amps
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What is the power(W) if the voltage is 10V and the current is 6A?
Power (W) = voltage (V) X Current (A) so the answer is 10 X 6 = 60W.
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How much power is transferred if a hairdryer uses 250J in 10 seconds?
Power (W) = energy transformed (J)/ time (s) so the power = 250/10 = 25W
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What is the cost of running a 10kW oven for 2 hours if a kWh costs 10p?
£2 (200p)
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How many forms of energy are there?
There are 9 forms of energy
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What is another term for movement energy?
Kinetic Energy
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If a torch takes in 50J of energy and transfers 20J to light. What is its efficiency?
20/50 X 100 = 40% efficiency
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A fan takes in electrical energy and gives out movement, heat and sound. Which type of energy is useful?
Movement
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If 90J of energy goes into a torch and 50J is given out as light, how much is given out as heat - the only other product?
40J
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Which type of surface will absorb the most heat energy?
Dark and Matt
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Who devised the geocentric model?

### Card 3

#### Front

Why didn't Copernicus' model of the universe include Uranus, Neptune and Pluto?

### Card 4

#### Front

Which planet's moons did Galileo observe?

### Card 5

#### Front

What does 'refract' mean?