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[SE f SMITH I L .




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P1 B: REVISION NOTES.

PIB5.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
KEY POINTS:

1. The EM spectrum (in order of increasing wavelength) is:

Gamma & X rays

UV

Visible

Infra-Red

Microwaves

Radio.

2. All electromagnetic waves travel through space at a speed of 300 million m/s
3. Wave speed= wavelength X frequency

WAVELENGTH

The…

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P1 B: REVISION NOTES.

PIB5.2 Gamma Rays & X-rays
KEY POINTS:

1. X-rays and gamma radiation are absorbed by dense materials in bone and by
metal.
2. X-rays and gamma radiation damage living tissue when they pass through it.
3. X-rays are used in hospitals to take radiographs.
4.…

Page 5

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P1 B: REVISION NOTES.

PIB5.3 Light & UV Radiation
KEY POINTS:

1. UV radiation is in the EM spectrum between violet light and X-radiation.
2. UV radiation has a shorter wavelength than light.
3. UV radiation harms the skin & eyes

UV RADIATION

Makes some chemicals emit light
Harmful to…

Page 6

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P1 B: REVISION NOTES.

PIB5.4 Infra-red, Microwaves & radio waves
INFRA REO RADIA TION

All objects emit infra-red radiation
The hotter the object the more of it will be emitted
It is absorbed by skin and can damage the cells because it heats them up.

MICROWAVES

They have a shorter…

Page 7

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P1 B: REVISION NOTES.

PIB5.5 Communications
KEY POINTS:

1. The use we make of radio waves depends on the frequency of the waves
2. Visible light and infra-red radiation are used to carry signals in optical fibres.



RADIO COMMUNICA TlONS

Radio & microwave spectrum is divided into frequency bands. The…

Page 8

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P1B: REVISION NOTES.
PIB5.6 Analogue & Digital signals
DIAGRAM


(a)
Analogue
1--1J'""--;(--+-+-----\--C~_signal




(b)
1
r-----
o
Time

DIGITAL

A sequence of pulses, the voltage level of each pulse is either high or low with no in between
levels mobile phone and computers use digital signals.

ANaLOGUE

A continuesly varying wave…

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