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Focus points
· What were the aims and motives of the Big
Three at Versailles?
· Why did the victors not get everything that they
wanted?
· What were the immediate reactions to the
peace settlement?
· Could the treaties be justified at the time?…read more

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The effects of the First World War
· Many parts of Europe had been devastated by the
fighting and shelling of four years of war. Large areas of
northern France and Belgium were in ruins.
· Millions of soldiers on both sides had been killed or
injured
· The governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary had
collapsed. These countries were defeated and
exhausted.
· The victorious powers were also exhausted. Britain and
France were almost Bankrupt. Only the USA was in a
strong financial position.…read more

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The mood in 1919
· Many people in Britain and France felt that Germany was
responsible for starting the war and should be severely
punished and made to pay reparations.
· Although there had been no fighting on British soil, most
families had lost a close relative during the war. Therefore,
public opinion put pressure on politicians
· to treat Germany harshly in the peace settlement.
· The Germans had treated the Russians harshly in the Treaty
of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918.…read more

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The Paris Peace Conference
· The conference took place in the Palace of Versailles on
the outskirts of Paris. It lasted for twelve months from
1919 to 1920.
· Thirty-two nations should have been represented, but
none of the defeated countries were invited.
· The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the
five treaties.…read more

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The motives, aims and roles of the different
leaders at the Paris Peace Conference
· The most important and influential countries
at the negotiations were France, Britain and
the USA
· Their leaders were known as the Allies. Even
at the time, it was clear that the different
leaders had conflicting views about what a
peace treaty should do.…read more

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The motives, aims and roles of the different
leaders at the Paris Peace Conference
Country The USA Great Britain France
Leader Woodrow Wilson David Lloyd-George Georges Clemenceau
Aims Wanted Germany to accept Wanted Germany to be Wanted Germany to suffer
the blame for starting the 'justly' punished as to prevent for causing damage to
war, but the USA didn't want Germany seeking revenge or France. Did not want
the punishments to be too the spread of Communism.…read more

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Wilson's Fourteen Points
1. No secret treaties between countries.
2. Freedom of navigation upon the seas, both in times of peace and war.
3. Free trade between countries.
4. All countries to reduce their armed forces to the lowest level consistent with domestic
safety.
5. Overseas colonies owned by European powers to have a say in their own future.
6. All foreign troops to leave Russia. The Russian people to be allowed to decide their own
future without interference.
7. Independence for Belgium.
8.…read more

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The Terms of the Treaty of Versailles
· Each of the defeated countries had to sign a
different treaty with the victorious allies.
· The most important treaty was with Germany
- the Treaty of Versailles
· All of the Allies had to make compromises,
and in the end, none of the Big Three were
truly happy with the final treaty.…read more

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Guilt for the War
­ Germany was forced to accept the blame for starting the war.
­ Most Germans were outraged by this, and the politicians that signed the Treaty
became known as the 'November Criminals'
2. Armed Forces
­ Germany was forced to make major cuts in its armed forces to a level well-
below what it had been in 1914.
­ German forces were seen as a major threat to the Allies.…read more

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