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Page 1

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.


Turning to Crime. Upbringing
Disrupted families
Criminal behaviour is likely to come from broken than intact home
Variables: Single-parent family, separated parents, amount of conflict at home
Lower socio-economic groups ­ poverty and poor educational opportunities
It is seen that if the child is from a…

Page 2

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.

Sutherland's 9 principles of criminal learning:
Criminal behaviour is learned just like any other behaviour ­ learned in interaction with others
(Social learning theory)
Imitation - Largest influence on criminal behaviour is intimate personal groups (Family, peers) ­
influence of media is unimportant
Definitions - Learning…

Page 3

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.

Propensity induced ­ youths that have a need to offend due to factors like anti-social values, low levels of
shame, weak family and high risk lifestyle
Lifestyle dependent ­ youths that offend when they have high risk lifestyle like socialising with delinquent
peers and using drugs…

Page 4

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.


Turning to Crime. ­ Biology
Brain Dysfunction
Special structures inside the brain may control our social behaviour
Without these brain structures might be heartless and impulsive with no sense of right and wrong
Brain dysfunction may lead to criminal behaviour due to factors that may change…

Page 5

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.

Individuals with XYY have low intelligence and poor educational achievement that become risk factors for
criminality
Genes may give some people a predisposition to take risks, not think about consequences, be aggressive
or behave selfishly
Serotonin ­ happy hormone that may link to impulsive violent behaviour…

Page 6

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.

Gender
Young males appear more often in crime statistics than any other groups
Crime rates for females are far lower than males
Testosterone ­ Male hormone that could be seen as a factor in male violence as it influences levels of
aggression
Evolutionary biology ­ biological…

Page 7

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.


Making a case. ­ Interviewing witnesses
Recognising faces
Face perception ­ brain and mind understanding and interpreting a face
Recognising a familiar face is simple and easy, but recognising an unfamiliar face is difficult
Witness is asked to help develop identikits to fit images of the…

Page 8

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.

Factors effecting identification (weapon focus)
There are many factors that may affect the recall of a witness
Offenders use disguises or headgear so they won't be recognised
If not disguised factors like distance and lighting may affect the witness's visual activity
Cognitive approach ­ people have…

Page 9

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.

Cognitive interview
Effective way of questioning witness that doesn't involve any leading questions that may affect memory
Standard interview ­ used closed questions or interrupted witness that discouraged witnesses from
remembering everything
Stages of Cognitive interview
Report everything ­ report all details that can be remembered…

Page 10

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.


Making a case. ­ Interviewing suspects
Detecting lies
After arrest, interview takes place to gain evidence to see if suspect is guilty or innocent
Suspect remains guilty until proven innocent
Police must look for body language cues that may suggest lying
Eg. Inconsistent responses, laughing, sighing,…

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