OCR Forensic Psychology

These are my old revision notes - hope they can be useful to some of you! I understand that these are incomplete but helps to provide some information. Sorry, I lost my finished notes

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  • Created on: 25-11-14 22:54
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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.
Turning to Crime. Upbringing
Disrupted families
Criminal behaviour is likely to come from broken than intact home
Variables: Single-parent family, separated parents, amount of conflict at home
Lower socio-economic groups ­ poverty and poor educational opportunities
It is seen that if the child is from a broken but harmonious home are less likely to be delinquent
than being brought up in intact but conflict-ridden family
Biggest influence on criminality is family
If family are criminals this will influence other family members to become a criminal
Children who don't receive discipline for inappropriate actions will lead to them learning that they
can get away with bad actions
Criminality may be because of growing up in a household where criminal thinking is the norm
Family conviction is another factor that could lead to child turning to crime
Farrington ­ Disentangling the link between disrupted families & delinquency
Aim
Compare delinquency rates among boys living in permanently disrupted families at age 15, with that of those
living in intact families
Method
Longitudinal survey
Interviews and criminal records data
Sample
411 boys - Age 8 & 9
Procedure
Data collected from the boys and their parents
Results
Delinquency rates were similar in disrupted families ­ 29% conflicted compared to 18% in intact high conflict
families
Boys who lost mother were more likely to be delinquent than those losing fathers
Number of offences and offenders peaked at age 17
Boys who started criminal careers at age 10-13 nearly all re-convicted once ­ 91%
Conclusions
If you are from a disrupted family then you are more likely to become delinquent, but also the case for those in
intact high conflict families
Other factors (eg. Community context, peers, individual characteristics) may have impacted them to turn to crime
and may not be because of family
Evaluation point Explain + Evidence
Learning from others (differential association hypothesis)
Behaviourist ­ leaning is environmentally driven
Family may not be the only influence on crime
People are more likely to commit crime if others in their social group do

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.…read more

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.
Turning to Crime.…read more

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.
Gender
Young males appear more often in crime statistics than any other groups
Crime rates for females are far lower than males
Testosterone ­ Male hormone that could be seen as a factor in male violence as it influences levels of
aggression
Evolutionary biology ­ biological traits are passed on through species and traits that have `survival value'
that could lead them to have risky behaviour in males rather than females.…read more

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.
Making a case.…read more

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.
Cognitive interview
Effective way of questioning witness that doesn't involve any leading questions that may affect memory
Standard interview ­ used closed questions or interrupted witness that discouraged witnesses from
remembering everything
Stages of Cognitive interview
Report everything ­ report all details that can be remembered even if they appear trivial.…read more

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Psychology revision ­ Forensic.
Making a case. ­ Interviewing suspects
Detecting lies
After arrest, interview takes place to gain evidence to see if suspect is guilty or innocent
Suspect remains guilty until proven innocent
Police must look for body language cues that may suggest lying
Eg.…read more

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