OCR A2 Forensic Studies

Includes ALL Forensic Studies from OCR syllabus

Detailed Background, Study to support & Conclusion for each study

HideShow resource information
Preview of OCR A2 Forensic Studies

First 479 words of the document:

Turning to crime ­ Upbringing
Many would argue that the biggest influence on criminality is the family
Partaking in illegal activity is easier when an individual grows up in a household where criminal
thinking is the norm.
If you family are criminals it is likely that you to would become a criminal
Furthermore, children who do not receive discipline for their inappropriate actions learn that they
can get away with doing the wrong thing
However, these are deterministic explanations, ignoring individual differences
Some people from disruptive families do tend to buck the trend and turn their lives around
Conversely, those from law abiding families can go on to become criminals
A study to support the idea of upbringing being the reason for criminality is by Juby &
Farrington (2001)
The AIM of this study was to document delinquency rates among boys living in permanently
disrupted families compared with those from non disrupted families
The HYPOTHESIS states that: Delinquency is more common among boys from permanently
disrupted families
Prospective Longitudinal Study
411 boys aged 8 and 9 in 1961
The sample was obtained from the registers of 6 state schools in south London
Predominately white working class
Data was collected throughout the boys lives until the age of 50
Data was collected from the boys, parents and teachers
Data Included:
-Juvenile and adult convictions
-Self reported delinquency
-Intelligence & Personality Tests- From age 8 ­ 46
-Interviews with boys- From age 8 ­ 46
-Annual Interviews with parents- From age 8 ­ 15
-Parents reported on family income & family situation
-Questionnaires filled out by teachers on truancy and school behaviour- From age 8-15
-Data regarding criminal offences was gathered from the Criminal Record Office
The findings: Delinquency rates were similar in disrupted families (29% convicted) than those in
intact high conflict families (18% convicted)
Disruptions caused by parental disharmony were more damaging than parental death
Boys who lost their mothers were more likely to be delinquent than those who lost their fathers
The number of offences and offenders peaked at age 17
The boys who started criminal careers at age 10-13 nearly all re-convicted once (91%).
This study shows that if you are from a disrupted family then you are more likely to become
delinquent, however this is also the case for those in intact high conflict families. It can be concluded
that families are complicated and we cannot say that just because an individual comes from a
disrupted family that they are going to turn to crime. Other factors need to be established such as
the community context which surrounds the individual and the peers an individual may associate
themselves with, as well as their individual characteristics.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Turning to Crime ­ Poverty & Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods
The relationship between poverty and crime has been a controversial subject over the years.
Many would argue that poverty does not have a causal relationship to crime because there are
countries in which poverty is very high but the crime rate is relatively low.
Socio economic deprivation can be seen as a plausible explanation for the crime of theft.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Turning to Crime ­ The Influence of Peers
Family is not the only influence on criminality
Our friendship groups can profoundly affect criminality, especially during adolescence
People are more likely to commit crime if others in their social networks do, and less likely to do so if
their peers are law-abiding.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Cognition ­ Criminal Thinking Patterns
An essential approach in understanding crime is whether the people who commit offences think
differently to non-offenders.
The belief that criminals have different thought processes to non-criminals is a basic and
fundamental explanation of criminal behaviour.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Cognition ­ Moral Development
An essential approach in understanding crime is whether the people who commit offences think
differently to non-offenders.
The belief that criminals have different morals to non-criminals or that they lack morals in some
way is a basic and fundamental explanation of criminal behaviour.
Moral development refers to the development of values learned by children during socialisation,
mainly from parents or guardians
Moral development is the time when children are learning what is right and wrong.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Cognition ­ Social Cognition
We all justify and explain our behaviours using either internal or external attributions
An internal attribution is when a person accepts full responsibility for their own behaviours and
sees the cause as being within themselves
An external attribution is when a person's sees the cause of their behaviour as being due to an
external factor
A criminal is considered rehabilitated when they can fully accept responsibility for their crime-
They basically have an internal attribution and accept their guilt
STUDY…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Biology ­ Brain Dysfunction
Previous research which have used a variety of techniques on both animals and humans has
indicated that dysfunction in certain localised brain areas may predispose individuals to violent
The aim of the study was to look at direct measures of both cortical and subcortical brain
functioning using PET scans in a group of murderers who have pleaded not guilty by reason of
The method is a laboratory experiment using an independent measures design.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Biology ­ Genes & Serotonin
Previous research has shown that the genetics within an individual may be the cause of criminality
In 1966, Price suggested that males with an extra Y chromosome `XYY' were predisposed
towards violent crime ­ Individuals with XYY are usually above average height and below
average intelligence ­ The argument was that an extra male chromosome would make the
individual more aggressive and more criminal.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Biology ­ Gender
In all cultures, young males appear more often in crime statistics than any other groups
Although, females do commit crime, the figures are far lower
The male hormone testosterone has been cited as a factor in male violence as it does influence
levels of aggression
Daly and Wilson noticed that young male offenders had a `short term horizon'
This means that these individuals want instant gratification
They have a short lifespan due to the risky behaviour that they engage in
Evolutionary…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »