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Persuading a Jury- effect of order on
Pennington & Hastie
· Primacy/recency effect- jurors might find it easier to
remember evidence when the best witness speaks first or
last. Or is it better to present evidence in story order
· Pennington & Hastie had 130 students- allocated to 1 of 4
conditions: 1- prosecution and defence both in story order;
2- prosecution and defence both in witness order; 3- pros
in story order and def in witness order; 4- pros in witness
order and def in story order.
· Listened to a tape recording of a mock trial then had to
reach a verdict- found that when defence was in story
order- less guilty verdicts and when prosecution in story
order- more guilty verdicts- so story order is the best…read more

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Persuading a Jury- effect of order on
Evaluation of Pennington & Hastie
E.V.- adapted from a real life case- lab study
and listened to a tape recording which
wouldn't happen in a real court
Useful- shows that the order which the
evidence is presented can affect the verdict
Reliable- all heard the same trial for same
length of time and results consistently showed
that story order was the best order…read more

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Persuading a Jury- persuasion
· Expert witnesses are used in criminal trials to warn jurors of problems
with eye witness testimony
· Cutler showed participants a realistic videotaped trial centred around
eyewitness evidence. 4 I.Vs:
1. Witnessing & identifying conditions- good (no disguise and no weapon)
or bad (disguise and a weapon)
2. Witness confidence- witness was either 80% or 100% sure they had
correctly identified the robber
3. Form of testimony- half of the trials with expert testimony, the expert
gave quanti data, and the other half the expert gave quali data
4. Expert opinion- in half of the trials the expert expressed an opinion on a
scale of 0-25 on the accuracy of the testimony
· When WIC were good, more guilty verdicts were given; expert testimony
made the jurors pay more attention to the eyewitness conditions…read more

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Persuading a Jury- persuasion
Evaluation of Culter
E.V.- video tape of trial- would feel more
serious in a real court where you could really
send someone to prison
Useful to know that having an expert witness
is beneficial, however less useful because it'
s artificial
Reliable- high control over what they heard in
each condition/ watched the same trial…read more

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Persuading a Jury- effect of
inadmissible evidence
· Inadmissible evidence is evidence which can't be used in
court, e.g. because it's not relevant- e.g. past convictions.
Sometimes a judge gives an explanation as to why the
evidence is inadmissible
· Pickels participants listened to an audiotape of a fictional
trial- the witness brings in the `critical evidence' and the judge
either: rules inadmissible, rules admissible, or rules
inadmissible with explanation
· Jurors who heard the evidence ruled inadmissible with no
explanation were able to ignore it and found the defendant
guilty; where those who heard the explanation were less
likely to find the defendant guilty- so weren't able to ignore it…read more

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