OCR AS Biology Unit 2

Q cards on everything on the spec for  OCR Biology Unit 2, some of them are kind of jumbled around but they are colour coded,
purple-classification
pink-conservation
brightish blue-speciciation, variation, evolution
brown-biodiversity
yellow-health and disease
orange-DNA genes etc
redish-food and health
pale blue/purple- biological molecules
green- enzymes

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Preview of OCR AS Biology Unit 2

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Describe how hydrogen bonding occurs in water Properties and roles of water
S ol
v ent
me taboli
c processe s r
ely
o n
chemica l
s
I
n the
w ater
mo lecul
e i
n a sol
u t
ion.
(blood ,
xylem,
p hl
oem)
t
he
two hydroge n H i
g h specif
ic
he at
ca paci
ty ther
ma l
heat energy
at
o ms are
b onded t
o absorbed
by H bon ds.
(prev ents
temp change s)
t
he
oxyge n C ohe si
o n H Bo nds sti
ck
H 2 0 t
oge t
her cr
eati
n g
covalent
ly.
A sur
face
tension (
draw up xy l
em, pond skat
e r
s)
hydrogen bon d
is
a F r
e ezing
w at
e r
f
ree zes f
ormi ng i
ce of
surf
ace
wea k
int
eraction
that water
u nderneath i
ns ul
ated (
fi
sh
don't
f
reeze)
can occur
w henever T herma l
stabi
li
ty
large bodi es
of
w ater
have f
air
ly
mo l
ecules
c ontai
n a constant
temp
(oce ans) eva porat
ion
o f
water
can
sl
ightl
y negati
ve l
y cool
(ma mma ls swea t
ing)
char
ge s
a t
om bonded t
o a
sli
ghtl
y posi
ti
ve cha r
ge d Me tab ol
ic
w at
e r
t
a kes part
i
n some
processes
at
om. Wa ter
i
s t
herefor
e a
polar
mo l
ecule.
(
hyd rol
ysis)
Structure of an amino acid Formation and breakage of peptide bonds in the
synthesis and hydrolysis of dipeptides and
N H2 amine
group polypeptides
R
group
d et
ermines A pepti
de
bo nd f
orms
b etween
t he
ami ne
group of
one
t
he shape
of
the
acti
ve AA and the carboxyli
c group of
a nother
A A.
Wh en
si
te,
pr
opert
ies
of f
orme d,
c ondensa t
ion r
e acti
on ( r
emo val
of
H 20),
when
pr
otei
ns depend
on t
he b roken
R gr
oup,
some
are hydrol
ys i
s (
ad di
ng
charged. (
G lyceri
ne:
H )
H20 )
.
C ar
bo xyl
ic group
N H2 CH 2 COO H
Primary Structure Tertiary structure
A mino aci
d sequence
(or
der,
si
ze,
type)
3
D
sh ape fr
o m f
oldi
n g
or
coil
i
n g
mo r
e
D eter
min ed
by t
he gene
that
codes
for
a Ma de
of bo t
h
a nd
po l
ypepti
d e .
Bon ds
1.P epti
d e
(1°)
Bo nds 2.H ydrog en
be t
w een
polar
groups
Pe pt
ide 3.D i
su l
ph i
de betw een sul
p hur
cont
aini
ng R groups
(cysteine),
cova l
en t
,
stabi
li
se ext
racel
lul
ar
en zyme .
4.I onic Bond s be t
w een opposi
tel
y char
ged
AA
5.H ydrop hobi
c bo nds i
nside
str
ucture
between non
po l
ar R
groups
6.H ydrop hi
li
c bon ds
ou t
side
between non
polar
r
grou ps
7.V an der Wa al
s

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Secondary Structure Haemoglobin
heli
x Q uaternary
struct
ure
pleated
s hee t
4
polypeptide
u ni
ts,
t
w o
,
two
S pecial
is
e d part
of
each pol
ypepti
de i
s t
h e
haem
F or
me d
w hen amino aci
ds
coi
l
or
fol
d.…read more

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Differences between alpha and beta glucose How structures of starch (amylose), glycogen and
cellulose relate to their functions in organisms
A l
ph a
g l
ucose has
­O H
group below on S t
arch i
n solu bl
e,
so doe s
no t
a f
fect
.…read more

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Chemical test for lipids Describe how the concentration of a glucose
solution may be determined by using colorimetry
A d d
eth ano l
t
o
ex t
ract
(
dissol
ve)
l
ipi
d and D o
B enedict
's
test
f
ir
st.…read more

Page 5

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Outline the roles of RNA in organisms State what an enzyme is
RNA differs from DNA in that the molecule is a singlestranded
polynucleotide and is other shorter than DNA. RNA contains the G l
o bul
a r
prot
e i
ns general
ly
solubl
e i
n wat
er
sugar ribose and the base uracil not thymine.…read more

Page 6

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Describe how the effects of pH, temp, E conc. , S Explain the effects of competitive inhibitors
conc. can be investigated experimentally
Definition:
mo l
ecular
sh ape i
s si
mi l
ar to
sub str
a te,
so
fit
s i
nto act
ive
sit
e,
slow ing
dow n t
he r
a t
e of r
ea c t
ion.…read more

Page 7

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Define the term balanced diet Explain how consumption of an unbalanced diet
A ba l
ance d i
e t
is o ne t
h at
co nta ins
all
t
he can lead to malnutrition
nutri
en t
s r
eq u i
r ed f
or
h e al
th in a ppr
opriate Maln ut
ri
ti
o n mean s
ea ti
ng
t oo
mu ch or
too
less
than
propo r
ti
ons need ed.…read more

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Outline how selective breeding is used to Describe how the use of fertilisers and pesticides
produce domestic animals with high productivity with plants can increase food production
B reeders
cho ose
the f
eature
th at
they
w i
s h
to Organic fertilisers are the wastes of animals and composted
imp rove,
and select
those wit
h desi
red feat
u r
es t
o plants artificial fertilisers contain the chemicals crop plants need
as nutrients in the correct proportions
b e bred
together.…read more

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Describe causes and means of transmission of Describe causes and means of transmission of
AIDS/HIV TB
C ause
vir
us
hu man i
mmu nodefi
ci
en cy
virus C ause
Bacteri
um mycob acter
ium
tubercul
osis,
mycobacter
iu m bovi
s
Ma in
me t
ho ds
of
tr
a nsmissi
on dur
ing
un pr
otect
e d
sexual
int
e r
cou r
se,
inf
ected Ma in
me t
hods of
tr
ansmis si
on ai
rbor
ne
blood and…read more

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Describe the structure of antibodies Describe the mode of action of antibodies with
Yshaped, with two distinct regions reference to neutralisation and agglutination of
Four polypeptide chains held together by disulphide pathogens
bridges
A constant region, which is the same in all
N eutr
ali
sation
antibod i
es
cov er
ing
the pathog en
antibodies.…read more

Comments

Kanwal


Wow your notes are actually incredible! Quick question, how are they layed out? As in are they colour coordinated? Or do they just follow from one another vertically/horizontally?

Much appreciated x

Bethany Cunningham

I think they are coordinated into spec points; I thought they were great!

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