F212 OCR Biology

  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 27-05-13 10:46
Define Pathogen.
A microorganism that causes disease. Pathogens are a kind of parasite.
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Define Parasite.
An organism that lives in close contact with its host and does it harm. Not all parasites are pathogens.
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What is Speciation?
The production of a new species from an old one.
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Where do B lymphocytes develop?
In the bone marrow.
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Where do T lymphocytes develop?
In the thymus gland during childhood.
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What does CITES stand for?
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild Fauna and Flora.
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Outline the aims of CITES.
-prohibit international trade in endangered species -trade is closely controlled -regulation of international trade
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What is allopatric speciation?
The production of new species from populations that are geographically separated from one another.
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What is sympatric speciation?
New species evolve without being geographically separated, so living in the same space.
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What are abiotic factors?
Factors caused by non living components of the environment eg. Water supply, nutrients levels in soil.
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What are biotic factors?
Factors caused by other living organisms eg. Predation, competition for food or infection by pathogens.
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State some characteristics of the Kingdom Prokaryota.
-no nucleus, DNA in circular chromosomes, cell walls present but not cellulose, small ribosomes
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State some characteristics of the Kingdom Protoctista.
-eukaryotic, no cell wall, nucleus.
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State some characteristics of the Kingdom Fungi.
-reproduce by spores, eukaryotic, cell walls made of chitin, never cilia or flagella, no chlorophyll and so no photosynthesis, unicellular.
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State some characteristics of the Kingdom Plantae.
-cellulose cell walls always present, occasionally flagella, multicellular
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State some characteristics of the Kingdom Animalia.
-multicellular, eukaryotic, feed heterotrophic ally, no cell walls, sometimes cilia or flagella.
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Define phylogency.
The study of evolutionary relationships.
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Give the order of the taxonomic classification system?
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
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What are the positive implications of mycoprotein?
-cheap to work with -cultured in small areas -grow all year around -not dependant on weather -can be grown on wasted materials -replacement for vegetarians -low in fat high in protein so used for diets/weightloss
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What are the negative implications of mycoprotein?
-not an interesting food -lack in iron compared to meat -sometimes specialist labs are needed -LEDC's can't afford specialist labs
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Outline the process as to how mycoprotein is made?
-in a fermenter -culture medium of glucose -glucose provides fungus with respiratory substrate for release of energy -carbohydrate added for growth -ammonium phosphate added so fungus can make proteins -optimum conditions -no stirrer
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How is food 'spoilt'?
-bacteria and fungi feed by secreting enzymes onto the food -enzymes hydrolyse substances within food -change smell, appearance and taste
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What are HDL's and what is their role?
High Density Lipoproteins. Pick up cholesterol from cells that are dying and transport to liver.
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What are LDL's and what is their role?
Low Density Lipoproteins. Carry lipids and cholesterol from liver to other parts of the body.
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What type(s) of glycosidic bond do amylose, cellulose and glycogen have?
AMYLOSE= alpha 1-4 glycosidic. CELLULOSE= beta 1-4 glycosidic. GLYCOGEN= alpha 1-4 and alpha 1-6 glycosidic.
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What is the function of Amylose, Cellulose and Glycogen?
AMYLOSE= energy store in plants. CELLULOSE= forms cell walls. GLYCOGEN= energy store in animals.
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What is the shape of Amylose, Cellulose and Glycogen?
AMYLOSE= helix. CELLULOSE= straight chain. GLYCOGEN= branched and coiled.
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What do Amylose, Cellulose and Glycogen share in common?
All insoluble. All have hydrogen bonds between sugar units. All have glycosidic bonds.
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What is a disaccharide, give an example?
= two monosaccharide molecules linked together to form a sugar called a disaccharide. For example two alpha glucose make maltose.
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What is a monosaccharide, give an example?
= carbohydrate whose molecules contain just one sugar unit. For example glucose, fructose and galactose.
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What allows the strands in collage to lie close?
Almost every 3rd amino acid is glycine (smallest) allowing strands to lie close.
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What is the vector that carries the Malaria Parasite?
Female Anopheles.
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What pathogen causes AIDS?
HIV.
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What pathogen causes TB?
Mycobacterium.
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What pathogen causes Malaria?
Plasmodium.
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What is an acute illness?
An illness that happens quickly, lasting a short time. Eg. Influenza
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What is a chronic illness?
An illness that lasts a long time and the sufferer has to learn to live with it. Eg. COPD
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What is the primary line of defence?
The first line of defence eg. Skin flora, saliva and tears containing lysozyme, mucus produced by goblet cells and blood clots to help seal wounds.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define Parasite.

Back

An organism that lives in close contact with its host and does it harm. Not all parasites are pathogens.

Card 3

Front

What is Speciation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where do B lymphocytes develop?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where do T lymphocytes develop?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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