AS OCR Biology F212

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Activation Energy
The initial energy that must be given to a substrate in order for it to change into a product
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Active Immunity
The ability to produce antibodies to destroy a pathogen
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Active Site
The part of an enzyme molecule to which the substrate binds
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Acute Illness
A disease that only lasts for a short time
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Adenine
One of the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Bonds with Thymine. Purine
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Adhesion
A force that attracts water molecules to a surface, by hydrogen bonding
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Allopatric Speciation
The production of a new species from populations that are geographically separated from one another
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Amino Acid
A molecule containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (and sometimes sulfur); It has a hydroxyl group and an amino group and one of 20 R groups attached to a central carbon atom
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Amino Group
NH2; this group readily ionises to form NH3+, so it is basic
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Amylose
A polysaccharide made of many alpha-glucose molecules linked together
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Angina
A pain felt in the chest and left arm, caused by poor blood flow in the coronary arteries
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Antibiotic
A substance that kills bacteria but does not harm animal cells
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Antibody
A small protein secreted by B lymphocytes in response to a particular antigen
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Antigen
A molecule or cell that is recognized as foreign by the immune system
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Antigen-presenting Cell
A cell that takes in a pathogen, or molecules from it, and holds them in its plasma membrane where they may be encountered by a lymphocyte
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Anti-parallel
Running in opposite directions, the two polynucleotide strands in a DNA molecule are anti-parallel
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Artificial Immunity
Immunity acquired through vaccination, for example being given weakened pathogens, or antibodies
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Atheromatous Plaque
A deposit of cholesterol in the wall of an artery
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Atherosclerosis
The hardening and stiffening of artery walls, often caused by deposits of plaque
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Autotroph
An organism that does not require organic nutrients; plants are autotrophs
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B lymphocyte
A white blood cell that secretes antibodies to a specific antigen
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Balanced Diet
A diet that includes some of all the required nutrients in suitable proportions, and the correct amount of energy/energy intake=energy use
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Binomial
The two word Latin name given to a species
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Biodiversity
The variety of habitats, communities and species in an area, and the genetic diversity within populations
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Biological Catalyst
An enzyme; a protein that acts as a catalyst in living organisms
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Biotic Factor
An environmental factor caused by other living organisms
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Bone Marrow
A cavity in the middle of some bones in which red and white blood cells are produced
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Broad-spectrum Insecticide
A substance that kills a wide range of insects, not only the pests
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Carboxyl Group
COOH; this group readily ionises to form COO- and H+ so it is acidic
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Carcinogenic
Causing Cancer
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Cardiac Arrest
A heart attack, when the heart muscle stops contracting
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Chronic Illness
An illness that lasts a long time
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
A long time illness cause by damage to the lungs and airways
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Class
A group of similar orders
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Classification
Putting things into a group
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Coenzyme
A non-protein substance that is required for an enzyme to catalyse a reaction
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Coenzyme A
A coenzyme required for many metabolic reactions to take place, including respiration
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Cofactor
A non-protein substance, often an inorganic ion, that is required for an enzyme to catalyse a reaction
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Cohesion
The attractive force that holds water molecules together by hydrogen bonding
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Collagen
A fibrous protein found in skin, bones and tendons
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Community
All the organisms of the all of the different species living in the same place at the same time
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Competitive Inhibition
Inhibition in which an enzyme inhibitor has a similar shape to the substrate molecule and competes with it for the enzymes active site
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Complementary Base Pairing
The pattern of pairing between the nitrogenous bases in a polynucleotide
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Condensation Reaction
A reaction in which two molecules are linked together, involving the formation of water
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Continuous Variation
Variation in which there is a continuous range of values between the two extremes
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Convergent Evolution
The development of similar structures in organisms that are not closely related, as a result of adaptation for similar lifestyles
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Coronary Artery
One of the arteries that branches off from the aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle
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Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
A disorder affecting the blood vessels (coronary arteries) that supply the muscle in the heart walls with blood
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Covalent Bond
A bond formed by two atoms sharing a pair of electrons
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Cytosine
One of the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Bonds with Guanine. Pyramidine.
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Denatured
When a protein molecule, for example an enzyme, has lost its molecular shape, so that its function can no longer be carried out
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
The genetic material contained in chromosomes; a polynucleotide in which the five-carbon sugar is deoxyribose
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Deoxyribose
A five-carbon sugar found in DNA
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Differentiation
The development of a cell to become specialized for a particular function
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Disaccharide
A sugar whose molecules are made of two sugar units
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Discontinuous Variation
Variation in which each organism belongs to one of a few clearly defined groups
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Disease
A condition that impairs the normal function of the body
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Disulfide Bond
A covalent bond between the sulfur atoms of two cysteine molecules
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Domain
One off the three major groups into which all living organisms are classified, an alternative classification to the five-kingdom system
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Ecosystem
The interactions between all the organisms, and their environment, in a particular area
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Emphysema
A disorder caused by the breakdown of the alveolar walls, making it difficult to obtain sufficient oxygen in the blood
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Environmental Factor
A feature of the environment that has an effect on the organism
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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
A study of possible environmental effects that must be carried out before a new development is approved
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Environmental Variation
Differences between organisms caused by their environment
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Enzyme
A protein that works as a catalyst
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Enzyme-substrate Complex
The temporary association between an enzyme and its substrate during an enzyme catalysed reaction
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Epidemiology
The study of patterns of disease in populations, in order to work out the causes of the disease
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Ester Bond
A bond linking a fatty acid to a glycerol molecule in a lipid.
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Eukaryotic
A cell containing a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
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Ex Situ
Away from the place where an organism usually lives
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Experimental Evidence
Data collected from planned, controlled experiments
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Family
A group of similar genera
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Fatty Acid
A molecule containing a hydrocarbon chain, with a carboxyl group at one end
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Fibre
A grouping of fibrils of a substance, large enough to be seen with a light microscope
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Fibrous Protein
A protein with a linear, three-dimensional shape; fibrous proteins have structural roles and are insoluble in water
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Freeze-dried
Food frozen in a vacuum, so that most of the water in it is lost as water vapour
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Gamma Radiation
Short wavelength electromagnetic radiation that destroys living cells
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Gene
A sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a polypeptide
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Genetic Variation
Differences between organisms caused by their genes
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Genetically Different
Containing a different collection of alleles of genes
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Genus
A group of similar species; plural genera
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Geographical Isolation
The separation of two populations of a species by a geographical barrier, for example a stretch of water
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Globular Protein
A protein with a roughly spherical three-dimensional shape; many are metabolically active and soluble in water
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Glucose
A hexose sugar; the form in which carbohydrate is transported in the blood of mammals
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Glycogen
A polysaccharide made of many alpha-glucose molecules linked together; it is the storage polysaccharide in animals and fungi
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Glycosidic Bond
The bond that links sugar molecules together in a disaccharide or polysaccharide
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Guanine
One of the four nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA. Bonds to Cytosine. Purine
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Habitat
A place where an organism lives
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HDL
High density lipoprotein
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Health
A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
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Herd Immunity
Immunity possessed by a large proportion of individuals in a population, lowering the chances of even those that are not immune from getting an infectious disease
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Heterotroph
An organism that requires organic nutrients; all animals and fungi are heterotrophs
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Hexose
A sugar with six carbon atoms
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Hierarchy
A series of groups in which each group is made up of several smaller ones
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Histones
Protein molecules that are associated with DNA in chromosomes
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Hydrogen Bond
An attractive force between a slight negative charge on one atom, for example oxygen, and a slight positive charge on another, for example hydrogen
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Hydrolayse
An enzyme that catalyses a hydrolysis reaction
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Hydrolysis
Water is added to break bonds
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Hydrophobic Interaction
A weak bond formed between two groups of atoms that are repelled by water
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Immune
Able to destroy a pathogen before it can harm the body
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Immune Response
The way in which lymphocytes respond to infection by pathogens
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Immune System
The organs and cells in the body that help to destroy pathogens
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In Situ
In the place where an organism usually lives
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Induced Fit
The change of shape of an enzyme when it binds with its substrate, caused by contact with the substrate
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Inhibitor
A substance that reduces the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction
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Initial Rate of Reaction
The rate at which substrate is converted into product right at the beginning of a reaction
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Inorganic Ions
Charged particles of elements or their compounds, such as potassium and nitrate
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Insulin
Hormone that reduces blood glucose levels
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Intensive Farming
Producing as much as possible on a small area of land, using high inputs such as fertilisers or high-energy animal feeds
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Ionic Bond
An electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
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Irreversible Inhibition
Inhibition of an enzyme that is permanent, and that is not affected by the addition of more substrate
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Kingdom
One of the five major groups into which organisms are classified
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LDL
Low density lipoprotein
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Leucocyte
White blood cell
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Lipids
Fats, oils and waxes
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Longworth Trap
A small metal trap used for catching small rodents
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Lymphocyte
A white blood cell that responds to a specific antigen in the body
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Macrophage
A type of white blood cell; it is a large cell and it destroys bacteria and other foreign material by phagocystosis
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Malnutrition
The effects of an unbalanced diet
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Maltase
An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of maltose to glucose
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Maltose
A disaccharide made of two alpha-glucose molecules joined together
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Mark, release, recapture
A method of estimating population size of mobile animals by marking a sample, releasing them and then catching a second sample
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Mass Extinction
The loss of many different species in a relatively short period of time
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Memory Cell
Derived from a B lymphocyte or T lymphocyte following contact with an antigen; it is able to divide rapidly if the same antigen is encountered later
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Metabolic Poison
A substance that prevents a metabolic reaction from taking place, for example a heavy metal that inhibits enzymes
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Monosaccharide
A sugar whose molecules are made out of a single sugar unit
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Mycoprotein
Food made from the culture of fungi in a fermenter
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Myocardial Infarction
Death of muscle cells in the heart wall
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Natural Immunity
Immunity acquired naturally, for example following an infection or through breast feeding
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Natural Selection
The way in which individuals with particular characteristics have a greater chance of survival than individuals without those characteristics; they are therefore more likely to reproduce and on genes for those characteristics to their offspring
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Neutrophil
Destroys pathogens by phagocytosis, contains enzymes
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Neutrophil Elastase
An enzyme, produced by neutrophils, which breaks down elastin
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Nicotine
The addictive substance in cigarette smoke
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Non-competitive Inhibition
Inhibition in which an enzyme inhibitor does not resemble the substrate, and binds with the enzyme at a place other than the active site, allosteric site
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Nucleotide
A molecule consisting of five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
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Obesity
Being seriously overweight; having a body mass index over 30
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Opportunistic Disease
A disease that occurs because the body's immune system is not functioning properly, allowing infection by pathogens
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Optimum Temperature
The temperature at which a reaction occurs most rapidly
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Order
A group of similar families
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Organic Nutrients
Substances containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, required by all living cells.
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Parasite
An organism that lives closely with another, and does it harm
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Particulates
Tiny carbon particles, found for example in cigarette smoke, that accumulate in lungs and cause irritation
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Passive Immunity
Possessing antibodies that were produced in another organism's body
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Pasteurised Milk
Milk that has been heated to round 63 degrees for 30 minutes, killing most microorganisms in it
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Peptide Bond
The CO-N linkage between two amino acids
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Percentage Cover
The percentage of the ground covered by a particular species
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Phylogeny
The study of evolutionary relationships
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Phylum
A group of similar classes; plural phyla
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Plasma Cell
A cell derived from a B lymphocyte, which secretes antibodies
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Point Quadrat
A quadrat so small that it consists of the end of a rod; the plants touched by the rod are recorded as present in the quadrat
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Polynucleotide
A substance made of many nucleotides linked together in a chain; RNA and DNA are polynucleotides
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Polypeptide
A chain of amino acids
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Polysaccharide
A substance whose molecules are made of many sugar units linked together in a long chain
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Population
A group of organisms of the same species
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Primary Response
The response of the immune system when a pathogen is encountered for the first time
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Primary Structure
The sequence of amino acids linked together in a polypeptide or protein
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Product
A new substance that is made by a chemical reaction
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Prokaryotic
A cell that does not contain a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles; bacteria are prokaryotes
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Purine Base
A nitrogenous base whose molecules contain two carbon-nitrogen rings; adenine and guanine
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Pyramidine Base
A nitrogenous base whose molecules contain one carbon-nitrogen ring; thymine, cytosine and uracil
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Quadrat
A square area within which a survey of organisms is made
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Quaternary Structure
The overall shape of a protein molecule that is made up of two or more intertwined polypeptides
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R Group
One of the twenty or so possible groups of atoms that are attached to the central C atom in an amino acid
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Random Sampling
Investigating small parts of a habitat that have been chosen by chance, for example by using random numbers as coordinates
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Reproductively Isolated
Unable to breed with other members of the species
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Retrovirus
A virus that contains RNA, for example HIV
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Reversible Inhibition
Inhibition of an enzyme that only lasts for a short period of time, or that can be reduced by the addition of more substrate
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Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A polynucleotide made of nucleotides containing ribose
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Ribose
A five-carbon sugar found in RNA
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Ribosomes
Very small organelles found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
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Salting
Adding salt to food to preserve it
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Sampling
Investigating a small part of the whole
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Saturated Fat
A fat in which there are no double bonds between carbon atoms
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Secondary Response
The response of the immune system when an antigen is encountered again
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Secondary Structure
A regular, repeating pattern of shape in a polypeptide chain, for example an alpha-helix or beta-fold
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Selection Pressure
An environmental factor that decreases or increases the chance of survival or organisms with particular variations
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Selective Breeding
Choosing parents that are most likely to give rise to offspring with desired characteristics, generally carried out over several generations
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Semi-conservative Replication
The way in which new DNA molecules are formed; each new molecule consists of one old strand and one new one
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Simpson's Index of Diversity
A measure of biodiversity in an area
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Speciation
The production of a new species
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Species
A group or organisms with similar morphology and physiology, which are able to breed together to produce fertile offspring
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Species Density
The numbers of species per unit area
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Species Evenness
A measure of the relative abundance of all the different species in a habitat; the less difference between their population sizes, the greater the species evenness
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Specific
If an enzyme is specific it is able to bind with only a particular substrate
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Stroke
Damage to the brain caused by a burst or blocked blood vessel
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Structural Protein
A protein with a structural role, such as collagen or keratin; many structural proteins, but by no means all, are fibrous proteins
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Substrate
The substance that is altered by the enzyme during an enzyme-catalysed reaction
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Sweep Netting
Collecting insects and other organisms by sweeping a net through vegetation
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Sympatric Speciation
The production of a new species from organisms that are living in the same place
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Systematic Sampling
Taking samples at places selected for a reason, for example along a transect
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T helper cell
A T-lymphocyte that secretes cytokines stimulating other white blood cells to destroy a pathogen
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T killer cell
A T-lymphocyte that attaches to a cell containing an antigen and destroys the cell
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Tar
A mixture of chemicals in cigarette smoke, several of which are carcinogens
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Taxa
The hierarchical groups used in classification e.g. genus, species; singular taxon
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Taxonomy
Grouping organisms into a heirarchy of taxa
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Thymine
One of the four nitrogenous bases in DNA, bonds to adenine, pyramidine
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Transect
A line along which samples are take, for example by placing quadrats
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Triglyceride
A lipid whose molecules are made from three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule
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Uracil
One of the four nitrogenous bases found in RNA, bonds to Adenine, pyramidine
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Variation
Differences between individuals within a species
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The ability to produce antibodies to destroy a pathogen

Back

Active Immunity

Card 3

Front

The part of an enzyme molecule to which the substrate binds

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A disease that only lasts for a short time

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

One of the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Bonds with Thymine. Purine

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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