AS OCR BIOLOGY ENZYMES

Where enzymes work best, nutrition, protection, endothermic animals, etc. :)

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Emily Summers
Wednesday 24th March 2010
2.1.19 Where Enzymes Work Best
Extracellular Enzymes catalase reactions outside of the cell
Intracellular Enzymes catalase reactions inside of the cell
Al
l
organ i
sms on
the
Earth
use enzymes t
o cat
alase
thei
r
me tabol
ic react
ions.
Enzyme s
ar
e globular proteins,
and f
or
it
t
o w or
k i
t
has
to
ma int
ain
it
s specific
sha pe.
The
reason
t
hat
o r
ga ni
sms can l
ive
in
a var
iet
y of
envi
ronme nt
s i
s because
their enzymes can
funct
ion
i
n di
ff
e r
ent envir
on me nt
s.
Endothermic animals
can maint
ain
an i
nternal
body
temperat
u r
e i
ndependent
ly
fr
om the
envi
ronment,
so t
hey can
li
ve i
n a
vari
ety
of
envir
onme nt
s.
R egul
ati
ng t
he
body t
emp er
ature
means t
hat
en zymes can
funct
ion
at
close
to
opti
mu m t
emp erat
ure
insi
de
the
organi
sm.
However,
thi
s needs
a
lot
of
energy f
rom f
ood.
Mo r
e t
han
rept
il
es
of
a si
milar
si
ze,
but
t
he
advant
age of
having
en zyme act
ivi
ty
at
a const
ant
opt
imum l
evel
has
let
endot
hermi
c
ani
ma l
s sur
vive
w el
l
on l
an d
and water
.
Heterotrophs ar
e or
gan i
sms t
hat
get
thei
r
nutr
ient
s by
consumi
ng
other
or
gani
sms.
T hese
or
g ani
sms br
eak down t
he body
of
the
organi
sms t
o ext
ract
t
he
nut
ri
ent
mo l
ecul
es
for
gr
o wth
a nd
other
energy
requi
rements.
Digestion is breaking down large molecules into their sub units,
so
breaki
ng
the
bonds li
ke glycosidic, ester,
and
peptide bonds.
T his
is cat
alysed
by
dif
fer
ent
types
of
enzyme s.
Some
organi
sms
secr
ete
enzymes
outsi
de t
hems el
ves
onto t
he f
ood sour
ce,
w hi
lst
ot
hers
use
enzyme s
to
digest
f
ood molecul
es i
nto
mo nome r
s,
and
then t
he or
ganism can
take
them i
n and
use t
h em.
Lot
s of
enzymes
are
found
in
the
cyt
o pl
asm of
c
e l
l
s/at
tached
to
cel
l
me mbranes,
so
they'
re
int
racel
lul
ar.

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Emily Summers
Enzymes
that
cat
alase
react
ions
to
break
molecul
es down
are
useful
when pr
otect
ing
an
or
ganism,
and
ma ny
organi
sms
can use
enzymes as
a met
hod of
def
en ce.…read more

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