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A2 ETHICS
Meta-ethics
Analysis of ethical language
Trying to make sense of terms and concepts
Cognitivists
Believe concepts like good and bad exist
Theories:
ETHICAL NATURALISM:
All ethical statements are the same as non-ethical statements, therefore
can be verified or falsified
E.G. Thomas Moore was executed in 1535 for his…

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Non-Cognitive
Ethical statements are not statements that can be proved true or false
E.G. `Euthanasia is wrong' is not a statement about facts, instead opinions
and feelings.
Emotivism-A.J Ayer (boo/hurrah)
Ethical judgements are not statements that can be true or false, just
expressing feelings
Only 2 kinds of meaningful statements:…

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Virtue Ethics
Virtue ethics doesn't focus on actions being right or wrong but on how to
be a good person, it looks at what makes a good person and the qualities
or characteristics that make them good
Aristotle
Distinguishes between things that are good as a means (for the sake…

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Used the analogy of a man shopping with a list of ingredients. If the man
ignores the list of ingredients and therefore buys the wrong ones, he is
to blame.
In ethics the persons is shopping in the ethical supermarket with a list
of morals (for Anscombe this was Christian…

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about moral situations.



Michael Slote

Thought virtue ethics was based on common sense and intuitions.
Preferred the word admirable to good to describe an action.
Said virtues are `an inner trait or disposition of the individual'.
Believed virtues should be balanced between those close to us and other
people.
He…

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Libertarianism: the idea that human beings are able to
exercise free will when making decisions and are therefore
morally responsible

Libertarianism
We have complete free will and morally responsible for our actions
We are free agents able to make completely free choices
Peter Van Inwagen: analogy of choosing which path…

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B.F. Skinner: investigated behaviour modification through reward and
punishment
Highly probable that human behaviour is determined, if you cannot do
anything else it is therefore not your fault


John Locke: May appear to have moral choices, but only think we choose
because we do not know the real causes behind…

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Some argue humans know what is morally right yet they choose not to
do it
The more good a person does the more destined for hell they are, as
they are doing good for the wrong reasons.




Predestination
The belief that God has decided who will be saved and who…

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1. Synderesis, what he termed right, reason by which a person
acquires knowledge of basic moral principles and understands
that it is important to do good and avoid evil
2. Conscientia, called this the actual ethical judgement or decision a
person made
So it is being able to decide what…

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3. The id, unconscious self, basic drives and repressed memories. No
concerns about right and wrong, just concerned with itself
Oedipus complex: desire of a son to sleep with the mother and kill his
father
Electra complex: desire of a daughter to sleep with her father
Sees this as wrong…

Comments

Sophie Didymus

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thanks so much for this, its so helpful !

ardgeeza

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peng tings 

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