Notes on the 1,2 and 3rd Crusade

A brief summary on all three events and analysis of the themes!

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FIRST CRUSADE
Popes Urbans speech in Clermont (Burgundy)
(Pope Gregory's speech 21 years earlier had been unsuccessful.)
Purpose of the speech: LIBERATE JERUSALEM
He persuaded them by saying their sins would be forgiven if they go on the Crusade.
-He offered the knights an alternative as going on the Crusade meant they wouldn't
be fighting fellow Christians BUT another religion. (Muslims)
ALSO anyone who attacked the land of a Crusader would be excommunicated.
WHY DID POPE URBAN CALL THE FIRST CRUSADE?
-His motive had been RELIGIOUS.
-He was against violence amongst Christians
-A lot of Christian land was under threat by Seljuk Turks
-He wanted ultimate sovereignty? (NOT CERTAIN)
-It was okay to fight in the name of God
MIDDLE EAST IN 1095- MUSLIMS
CONSTANTINOPLE ­ ALEXIUS 1ST Was a Byzantine Empire
Alexius wanted to defeat SELJUK TURKS and regain all territory lost
Alexius asked for Urbans help-> this lead to the calling of the Crusades.
NICAEA- KILIJ ARSLAN ­ SELJUK SULTAN OF ASIA MINOR
He was meant to obey the Sultan of Baghdad-> Instead he was an independent
RIVAL- with Danishmend Due to disputes over territory- DISUNITY
ARMENIA- ARMENIAN PRINCES
Christian area-> had been part of Byzantine Empire
-Was taken in Seljuk attacks
EDESSA- THOROS -> AN ARMENIAN PRINCE
-Hold over his city WASN'T strong
-Worried for Turkish neighbours.
MOSUL- KERBOGHA
-Made Governor of city by Kilij Arslan
- Feared Warrior and certainly wanted MORE land.
BAGHDAD- BARKIJARUQ
-Weak Sultan of Baghdad and had LITTLE control ­Controlled Sunnite Caliph in the
city.
ALEPPO- RIDWAN -> SELJUK PRINCE (DUQAQS BROTHER)

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Hated brother Duqaq and FEARED Kerbogha.
ANTIOCH- ALSO RIDWAN
-Used to be a Byzantine city
Governon was Yaghi Siyan
YAGHI SIYAN BETRAYED RIDWAN IN A WAR AGAINGST DUQAR AND
NOW RAN ANTIOCH ON HIS OWN- DISUNITY.
DAMASCUS- DUQAQ ->SELJUK PRINCE (RIDWANS BROTHER)
-Hated brother Ridwan and FEARED KERBOGHA.
JERUSALAM- IFTIKHAR
-Egyptian Governor of the city (FATIMIDS)
SEIGE OF NICAEA- 1097
1) Nicaea was FORMER BYZANTINE LAND. It was captured by Kilik Arslan (TURK)
In May 1097.…read more

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ST SEIGE OF ANTIOCH
1) Crusaders took up positions outside of Antioch
2) Tower of Malregard was built (MILITAIRY SKILL) Tower allowed them to see
into Antioch
3) Fleets stopped sailing from Cyprus
4) BOHEMOND and ROBERT OF FLANDERS had to go Forage for food. Which
lead to the FORAGING BATTLE.
5) Ley Puy orders extra religious ceremonies (RELIGIOUS MOTIVATION)
6) News of RIDWANS army reaches the Crusaders.…read more

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It started by the Muslims capture of Edessa
Pope Eugenuis DIDN'T get a response
The FRENCH KING LOUIS wore the Cross which convinced his men
The response was created by the combination of Kings, Monks and the Pope.…read more

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On 28th July the CRUSADES decided to abandon their easy part of the city to
attacked and moved to a different position (LACK OF MILITAIRY SKILL)
4) They quickly ran out of food but were unable to return to their original
position.…read more

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The response was the greatest since 1095 [first crusade]
-HENRY OF ENGLAND, PHILIP OF FRANCE AND Emperor FREDERICK BARBAROSSA
OF GERMANY all vowed to take the cross.
-Crusade took two years to take off.
BEFORE THE CRUSADE ..
BATTLE OF HATTIN
1) July 1187 Crusaders decided to camp out at Saffuriyah- TIberias (there had
been 15 miles of arid plateau.
2) Saladin then moved into Tiberias where Raymond's wife was (JULY 2ND) When
GUY found out he didn't know what to do.…read more

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RICHARDS MARCHES TO JERUSALEM
1) March began in late October and by January the army was 15 miles away from
Jerusalem. (Jaffa was 50 miles from Jerusalem.
2) RICHARD was being cautious ensuring that the supply lines weren't attacked
or ruined.
3) When getting close to Jerusalem the Crusaders realised that once is was
captured it would be HARD to defend.…read more

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