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OCD Classification Anxiety disorder characterised by obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are recurring, persistent and intrusive thoughts or
impulses perceived as inappropriate, which cause anxiety because the content is unlike the thoughts the person usually has. They are perceived as
uncontrollable, and the sufferer fears they will act on them. The…

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third section has 10 questions which ask about
the extent to which these obsessions and
compulsions interfere with everyday life.
AO2/AO3 This means there may be a problem with the There have been questions as to whether or not The tests used to measure OCD eg:
consistency of the measuring…

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Genetics Evolution
Areas of the frontal love are thought to be abnormal in people with Evolutionary approach suggests that OCD behaviour (obsessions
AO1 OCD. The caudate nucleus normally supresses signals from the
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); the OFC sends signals to the thalamus
and compulsions) has adaptive value, therefore…

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stages ­ increased risk of OCD at biologically critical life
stages (imagining potential risks) such as during pregnancy
(Buttolph et al)

AO2/AO3 Research Support ­ Family studies Pauls et al- rate of Research Support Chepko-Sade et al ­ rhesus monkeys
OCD much higher among first degree relatives than the that…

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drugs that raised dopamine levels induces compulsive
behaviours, like excessive cleaning.

Non-human animals most research such as that into
specific OCD genes obtained from rats, so difficulty
regarding generalisation. Also animal ethics (eg,
trichotillomania research by Woods and Twohig).

Nature vs Nurture takes the biological approach, so is
determinist and…

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Chemotherapy (drugs) Psychosurgery
Most commonly used drugs are anti-depressants, but anti-anxiety If damaged areas of the brain cause some of the symptoms of OCD,
AO1 drugs are also used. Anti-depressants to reduce anxiety associated then the removal or disconnection of these areas may be a way to

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neurotransmitters, slowing down activity, thus individual is more
relaxed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) avoids destruction of
brain tissue. A large electromagnetic coil is placed above the scalp
Other drugs D-Cycloserine is an antibiotic used in treatment of near the forehead, which creates painless electric currents that
TB, which appears to…

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self-fulfilling prophecy that the sufferer may have, assuming that personality changes and OCD symptoms? OCD is far too complex to be
absence of medication will lead to return of OCD symptoms. measured through subjective tests such as an individual's IQ.
Also, research has shown that behavioural therapy may in fact…

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chemotherapy, any adverse effects can eventually wear off, whereas those obtained through surgery are permanent. Lastly, a d key issue associated with
chemotherapy is the dependency risk and withdrawl symptoms if medication is stopped, which could create other problems within itself (eg: addiction).
Furthermore, both biological approaches have their pros…


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