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OCD Classification Anxiety disorder characterised by obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are recurring, persistent and intrusive thoughts or
impulses perceived as inappropriate, which cause anxiety because the content is unlike the thoughts the person usually has. They are perceived as
uncontrollable, and the sufferer fears they will act on them. The sufferer must also have an insight into their disorder, eg: `If I don't lock the door, my family
will get hurt'. This is the cognitive element of OCD.…read more

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AO2/AO3 This means there may be a problem with the There have been questions as to whether or not The tests used to measure OCD eg:
consistency of the measuring instrument eg: the OCD is actually a separate disorder and if the DSM-V may be culturally biased in
Y-BOCS or DSM V or how it is measured by tests actually measure what they set out to the way that they assess symptoms;
clinicians. A patient may be diagnosed by one measure eg: symptoms of OCD.…read more

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Genetics Evolution
Areas of the frontal love are thought to be abnormal in people with Evolutionary approach suggests that OCD behaviour (obsessions
AO1 OCD. The caudate nucleus normally supresses signals from the
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); the OFC sends signals to the thalamus
and compulsions) has adaptive value, therefore an evolutionary
basis. If there was no useful purpose, natural selection would have
about things that are worrying.…read more

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­ increased risk of OCD at biologically critical life
stages (imagining potential risks) such as during pregnancy
(Buttolph et al)
AO2/AO3 Research Support ­ Family studies Pauls et al- rate of Research Support Chepko-Sade et al ­ rhesus monkeys
OCD much higher among first degree relatives than the that did most of grooming of others were retained without
relatives of healthy controls. Can't isolate environment! a group following group in-fighting.…read more

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Non-human animals most research such as that into
specific OCD genes obtained from rats, so difficulty
regarding generalisation. Also animal ethics (eg,
trichotillomania research by Woods and Twohig).
Nature vs Nurture takes the biological approach, so is
determinist and reductionist, a more eclectic approach
needed to acknowledge complexity of human behaviour.
Human behaviour cannot be determined just by genes,
adopting this approach reduces humans back to animals ­
acting upon impulses and instincts.…read more

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Chemotherapy (drugs) Psychosurgery
Most commonly used drugs are anti-depressants, but anti-anxiety If damaged areas of the brain cause some of the symptoms of OCD,
AO1 drugs are also used. Anti-depressants to reduce anxiety associated then the removal or disconnection of these areas may be a way to
with OCD. SSRI's are the preferred drug (eg: Prozac). They increase reduce undesirable symptoms. Psychosurgery aims to treat a
levels of serotonin neurotransmitter, which regulates mood and behaviour for which no pathological cause can be established.…read more

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) avoids destruction of
brain tissue.…read more

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OCD symptoms? OCD is far too complex to be
absence of medication will lead to return of OCD symptoms. measured through subjective tests such as an individual's IQ.
Also, research has shown that behavioural therapy may in fact have
the same effect as drugs (Schwartz et al response prevention Ethics can the individual really give informed
therapy, all reduced activity of caudate nucleus, as did those given consent if they have reached the point where the last
antidepressants).…read more

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Lastly, a d key issue associated with
chemotherapy is the dependency risk and withdrawl symptoms if medication is stopped, which could create other problems within itself (eg: addiction).
Furthermore, both biological approaches have their pros and cons , and essentially requires the individual to choose what treatment they wish to proceed
with, due to these consequences, however it is crucial that they are made fully aware of the dangers that either treatment possesses.…read more


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