Module 1 Definitions

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Module 1 Definitions
Atomic structure The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass number The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Relative atomic mass The average mass of an atom of an element relative to 1/12 of
the mass of carbon12.
Relative molecular mass The average mass of a molecule relative to 1/12 of the mass
of carbon12.
Relative isotopic mass The average mass of an isotope of an element relative to 1/12
of the mass of carbon12.
Isotope Atoms (of the same element) which have the same number of protons but
different number of neutrons.
Molecular ion An ion formed by the removal of an electron from a molecule.
First ionisation energy The energy required to convert one mole of gaseous atoms into
one mole of gaseous ions with a single positive charge.
Second ionisation energy The energy required to convert one mole of gaseous ions
with a single positive charge into one mole of gaseous ions with a double positive
charge.
Third ionisation energy The energy required to convert one mole of gaseous ions with a
double positive charge into one mole of gaseous ions with a triple positive charge.
Ground state An electronic configuration in which the electrons are in the lowest
available energy levels.
Avogadro's number Number of atoms in 12.000g of carbon12.
Mole The amount of substance which contains the avogadro's number of atoms,
molecules or groups of ions.
Molar mass The mass of one mole of substance.
Anhydrous A salt which contains no water of crystallisation.
Hydrated A salt which contains water of crystallisation.
Water of crystallisation Water chemically bonded within a crystal structure.
Empirical formula A formula which shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of
each element in a compound.

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Molecular formula A formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each element
in a molecule.
Molar gas volume The volume of one mole of gas under specified conditions of
temperature and pressure. (eg 24dm3, 20oC and 1 atm pressure).
Covalent bond A shared pair of electros between two atoms. Each atom provides one
electron.
Octet rule When forming a compound, an atom tends to gain, lose or share electrons to
achieve eight in its outer shell.…read more

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