OCR AS Chemistry - F322 Key definiations

Module 1 – Basic concepts and Hydrocarbons

Module 2 – Alcohols, Halogenalkanes and analysis

Module 3 – Energy

Module 4 – Resources

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OCR AS Chemistry unit 2 F322 Definitions to learn
Module 1 ­ Basic concepts and Hydrocarbons
You need to be able to describe and explain these terms;
Structural isomers a re
comp ou nds wit
h the
s ame
mo lecu lar
fo r
mu l
a bu t
differ
en t
st
ruct
ural
f or
mu l
a e
Stereoisomers a re compo unds wi
th
the same
str uct
u r
a l
formu la b ut
wit
h a d i
ff
erent
a rr
a ngeme n t
of
at
o ms i
n space.
E/Z isomerism i
s an examp l
e of
ste reois ome r i
sm, i
n w hic h
dif f
e rent
g r
o up s att
ache d
to
each
c arbon i
n t
he C=C
d oubl
e bond ma y be a r
rang ed di
ff
e r
e ntly
in s pace bec au se of
the
r est
ri
cted r
otat
ion of
t
h e
C =C bon d.
Cis /Trans Isomerism is
a
type of
E /
Z i
s o mer ism in
w hich
the re
is a non hy dr
oge n
group
a nd a hyd r
oge n
group on each
o f
t
h e carb on
a t
oms i
n
the C=C do uble
b ond .
The Cis
(Z)
I somer ha s
the
H
atoms
o n
each
ca r b on o n
th e sa me side .
Th e Trans (E )
Is omer has
the
H
a tom on e ach
carbon on di
ff
e r
en t
sid es.
Homolytic Fission i s
the br
e aking
o f
a
c oval
e nt
b ond
w it
h one o f
the bo nde d el
ectrons
going
t o
each
a tom,
forming t
w o
radica l
s.
Heterolytic Fission is
the
break i
ng of
a coval ent bond w i
t h
th e bond ed elec t
rons going
to
o ne of
the
atoms ,
f
orming a cat
io n (+
ion)
a nd an ani
on (
ion)
Curly arrows in Mechanisms a r
e t h e mo veme nt
of
a n el
e ctro n
pa i
r,
sh ow ing eit
her t
he
b reaki
n g or
the f
orma t
ion
o f
a
co vale nt
bo nd.
A Hydrocarbon i s an
a t
om ma d e o f hydr ogen
an d
carb on
on ly
A Radical is
a species
w i
th
a n
u n pa ir
ed elect
r o n
An Electrophile i
s an at
om or
a gr
o u p of
atoms
w hich
is a tt
rac ted an
e l
e ctron ri
ch cent
re or
a tom, wh ere
it
accepts
a pair
of
e lec tr
o ns
to f
o r
m a
ne w
co vale n t
b ond.
State that
A lkanes a nd
C ycl
oalkanes ar
e
s atur a ted hydro ca rbons
T here i
s a
tet
rahedral
shap e
aro und each car
b on at
o m in A l
ka n es
A lkenes a nd
C ycl
oalkenes ar
e
u nsa t ur
ate d hy dro ca r
bon s
T here i
s a
tr
igonal
planar
sha pe a r
o u nd e ach c arb on i
n t
he C= C
of
alken es

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Module 2 ­ Alcohols, Halogenalkanes and analysis
Definitions;
A Nucleophile i
s an
atom
att
ract
ed
to
an
elect
ron
def
ici
ent
at
om
or
cent
re
w her
e i
t
donat
es
a
pai
r
of
elect
rons
to
for
m a
new coval
ent
bond.…read more

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Module 3 ­ Energy
Definitions
Exothermic reaction a react
ion
in whic h
the ent
h al
py of
the
p roducts
is
sma l
ler tha n
th e
e nthal
p y
of the
re actant
s resul
ti
ng to
he at
l
o s s t
o the
surround i
n gs.
E.…read more

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