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Revision Booklet

Aleesha Hussain OCR

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Module 2 ­ Foundations in chemistry
Atoms, ions, and compounds
Amount of substance
Acids and redox
Electrons and bonding
Shapes of molecules and intermolecular forces
Module 3 ­ Periodic table and energy
The periodic table and periodicity
Group 2 and the halogens
Enthalpy changes
Reaction rates and equilibrium (qualitative)…

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4.2 Acid­base titrations
4.3 Redox
Chapter 5 Electrons and bonding 68/6
5.1 Electron structure
5.2 Ionic bonding and structure
5.3 Covalent bonding
Chapter 6 Shapes of molecules and 84/8
intermolecular forces 5
6.1 Shapes of molecules and ions
6.2 Electronegativity and polarity

Subject Exam Date
Biology Thursday 19th May…

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Module 2 ­ Foundations in
Atomic Structure and Isotopes
Describe the charges and size of particles in an atom.
An atom consists of a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by
electrons arranged in shells. The total positive charge of the proton cancels out the…

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Amount of Substance
Define relative isotopic mass.
The mass of an isotope relative to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Define relative atomic mass.
The relative atomic mass is the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element relative to 1/12 of
the mass of an…

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Step 3: Write out the empirical formula.
How would you work out the molecular formula from the empirical formula?
Step 1: Write the relative mass of the empirical formula.
Step 2: Divide the molecular mass by the relative mass.
Step 3: Write out the molecular formula.
Describe stoichiometry.
The relationship…

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Solutions containing a higher number of moles of solute in a given volume of solution are
described as concentrated.
Solutions containing a fewer number of moles of solute in a given volume of solution are
described as dilute.
Give the three molar equations.

Give the formula for percentage yields.


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Acids and redox
Explain the difference between acids, bases and alkalis.

Acids dissolve in water and release H+ ions in aqueous solution. They are proton donators. A base
neutralises an acid to form a salt. Alkalis are water-soluble bases that dissolve in water to release
OH­ ions in aqueous solution.…

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Acid-Base Titrations
Describe the techniques and procedures used when preparing a standard solution of required
concentration and carrying out acid­base titrations.

A standard solution is a solution with a known concentration. Weigh the solid substance and
divide this number by its molecular mass to find the moles. Divide this by…


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