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Revision Booklet
Aleesha Hussain OCR
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Module 2 ­ Foundations in chemistry
Atoms, ions, and compounds
Amount of substance
Acids and redox
Electrons and bonding
Shapes of molecules and intermolecular forces
Module 3 ­ Periodic table and energy
The periodic table and periodicity
Group 2 and the halogens
Enthalpy changes
Reaction rates and equilibrium (qualitative)
Module 4 ­ Core organic chemistry
Basic concepts of organic chemistry
Organic synthesis
Module 2 Foundations in chemistry
Chapter 2 Atoms, ions, and Text Booklet Spec Tests Exam Questions
compounds…read more

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Acid­base titrations
4.3 Redox
Chapter 5 Electrons and bonding 68/6
5.1 Electron structure
5.2 Ionic bonding and structure
5.3 Covalent bonding
Chapter 6 Shapes of molecules and 84/8
intermolecular forces 5
6.1 Shapes of molecules and ions
6.…read more

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Module 2 ­ Foundations in
Atomic Structure and Isotopes
Describe the charges and size of particles in an atom.
An atom consists of a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by
electrons arranged in shells. The total positive charge of the proton cancels out the total negative
charge of the electrons making atoms neutral.…read more

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Amount of Substance
Define relative isotopic mass.
The mass of an isotope relative to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Define relative atomic mass.
The relative atomic mass is the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element relative to 1/12 of
the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Describe how to determine the relative atomic mass of an element from the relative
abundances of its isotopes.…read more

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Step 3: Write out the empirical formula.
How would you work out the molecular formula from the empirical formula?
Step 1: Write the relative mass of the empirical formula.
Step 2: Divide the molecular mass by the relative mass.
Step 3: Write out the molecular formula.
Describe stoichiometry.
The relationship between the amounts of reactants and products is called the STOICHIOMETRY of
a reaction.…read more

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Solutions containing a higher number of moles of solute in a given volume of solution are
described as concentrated.
Solutions containing a fewer number of moles of solute in a given volume of solution are
described as dilute.
Give the three molar equations.
Give the formula for percentage yields.
Give four reasons why the theoretical yield may not be achieved.…read more

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Acids and redox
Explain the difference between acids, bases and alkalis.
Acids dissolve in water and release H+ ions in aqueous solution. They are proton donators. A base
neutralises an acid to form a salt. Alkalis are water-soluble bases that dissolve in water to release
OH­ ions in aqueous solution. These are proton acceptors.
What makes an acid weak or strong?
A strong acid releases all its hydrogen atoms as H+ ions and completely dissociates / ionises.…read more

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Acid-Base Titrations
Describe the techniques and procedures used when preparing a standard solution of required
concentration and carrying out acid­base titrations.
A standard solution is a solution with a known concentration. Weigh the solid substance and
divide this number by its molecular mass to find the moles. Divide this by the volume of solution
to find the concentration.
Why must titres agree within 0.…read more


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