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Module 1 ­ Atoms and
reactions
1. Atomic structure
2. Atomic masses
3. Amount of substance and the mole
4. Types of formula
5. Moles and gas volumes
6. Moles and solutions
7. Moles and reactions
8. Acids and bases
9. Salts
10. Water of crystallisation
11. Titrations
12. Oxidation number
13. Redox reactions
14. summary…read more

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Atomic structure Particle Relative Mass Relative Charge
Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus
Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells
An atom is neutral Proton 1.0 1+
Protons and neutrons have the same mass Neutron 1.0 0
Carbon exists as a mixture of isotopes ­
Electron 1/2000 1-
C12, C13 and C14
Key
Different isotopes of the same elements react in the same way this is
because: Definitions
1. Chemical reactions involve electrons ·Isotopes ­ atoms of
2. Neutrons make no difference to the chemical reactivity the same element with
different numbers of
Many atoms react by losing or gaining electrons to for charged particles neutrons. They have the
called ions. They are charged because they have different numbers same atomic number but
of protons and electrons. different mass numbers
·Atomic Number ­
the number of protons in
the nucleus of an atom
·Mass Number ­
the number of particles
in the nucleus
·Ion ­ a positively or
negatively charged atom
or covalently bonded
group of atoms
(molecular ion)…read more

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Atomic Masses
Key Definitions
The carbon-12 isotope has been chosen as the international ·Relative atomic mass
standard for the measurement of relative mass. ­ the mass of an atom of an
Atomic masses are measured using a unit called the unified isotope compared with 1/12th
of the mass of an atom of
atomic mass unit, u. 1 u is a tiny mass ­ 1.6x10-27 kg
carbon- 12.
the mass of an atom of carbon-12 id defined at 12 u so the
mass of 1/12th of an atom of carbon 12 is 1 u. ·Relative atomic mass
Ar ­ the weighted mean mass
of an atom of an element
o
Ar=(% abundance of isotope x mass n ) + (% abundance of compared to 1/12th of the mass
other isotope x mass no) / 100 of an atom of carbon ­ 12
·Relative molecular
mass, Mr ­ the weighted
mean mass of a molecule
compared with 1/12th of the
mass of carbon -12.
·Relative formula
mass ­ the weighted mean
mass of a formula unit
compared with 1/12th of the
mass of an atom of carbon
-12.…read more

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Amount of substance and the
mole
One mole of H atoms had a Key Definitions
mass of 1.0 g. ·Amount of substance -
the quantity whose unit is the mole.
One mole of C has a mass of Chemists use is as a means of
counting atoms.
12.0 g. ·Avogadro constant, NA ­
One mole of Pb has a mass the number of atoms per mole of
the carbon ­ 12 isotope (6.02 x 1023
of 207.2 g mol-1).
·Mole ­ the amount of any
substance containing as many
particles as there are carbon atoms
in exactly 12 g of the carbon-12
isotope.
·Molar mass ,Mr ­ the mass
per mole of a substance. The units
of molar mass are g mol-1 .…read more

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Types of formula
Amount, n = mass, m / molar mass, M
Key Definitions
·Empirical formula-
the simplest whole- number
ratio of atoms of each element
present in a compound.
·Molecule ­ a small group
of atoms held together by
covalent bonds.
·Molecular formula ­
the actual number of atoms of
each element in a molecule.
Wo
r
Em king
o
Fo piric ut
rm al
ula…read more

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Comments

aleena

Really nice and concise set of notes with all the key facts - Thanks

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