Medicine Through Time Revision Cards

A PDF OF THIRTY THREE REVISION CARDS OF MEDICINE THROUGH TIME INCLUDING THE:Twentieth Century , The Industrial Revolution,Renaissance,The Arab World,The Middle Ages,Late Middle Ages,Early Middle Age,Ancient Rome,Ancient Greece,Ancient Egyptian & Pre-Historic Times.

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cause of illnesses such as headaches.
people believed that trephanning released the evil spirit inside somebodies skull which was the
Trephanning, although an early form of surgery, was carried out for religious reasons - pre-historic
to supernatural ones, such as charms and amulets and chantings from the Medicine Man.
search for natural, rational explanations about the causes of disease and cures were restricted
and illnesses. Because of a thorough belief in the afterlife there was no reason for people to
that good spirits caused good things and bad spirits caused bad things, such as disease
Religion: A belief in the spirit world was an important influence on pre-historic life. They believed
by word of mouth.
knowledge of medicine or education about medicine and skills and ideas were passed along simply
Education and Communication: There was no written language, no schools, no records of prior
Technology: Primitive tools such as flints and arrow heads.
lack of government planning, intervention or funding of medicine was not possible.
Government: There was no settled government so people lived nomadic lifestyles. Because of the
Pre-Historic
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Ancient Egyptian
Religion: Egyptian religion relied heavily on a belief in the afterlife and in the Gods. The Goddess Sekhmet was believed
to have the ability to cause and cure epidemics. A belief in the afterlife meant that bodies were preserved (mummification)
and, therefore, not dissected properly. The Egyptians believed that the body was important for the afterlife so they would
not have dissected it. Through mummification knowledge of the human anatomy was known - albeit only a little.
Natural ideas: Herbs, Purging the body, Mosquito nets, Covering wounds with honey, The use of bronze surgical
equipment's.
Supernatural ideas: Gods, Charms, Spells, Chanting, Sacrifices.
Priest physicians cleaned and shaved themselves frequently so that they were pure for the Gods. They also observed,
examined and recorded the treatments they used on papyrus.
Writing: They developed their own writing (papyrus) which allowed them to document their medical findings on and use
to communicate with others.
Trade: Egyptians had many trade links with other countries which brought in new herbs and plants that were useful to
medicine and allowed Egyptian healers to build up their knowledge about medicine.

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Careful observation was stressed.
beginning to understand about the function of organs. They knew that fitness was important but
Change: Herophilus discovered that the brain controlled the body, not the heart - Greeks were
Asclepions. A belief in the Gods was still present.
The Ancient Greeks also believed that hygiene was important, as can be seen in the layout of
time such as herbs.…read more

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Hippocratic Oath - an oath which is still used
Hippocrates also believed that careful observation was important. He wrote many books that wer
Autumn - Black Bile - Earth - Dry Skin, Vomiting.
Spring - Blood - Air - Dysentery, Nose Bleeds.
Winter - Phlegm - Water - Sneezing, Colds.
Summer - Yellow Bile - Fire - Fevers, Vomiting, Yellow skin.
they body contain too much phlegm.
when the humours were unbalanced.…read more

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Fixed policies about burying the dead, including introducing graveyards.
5. Extra precautions against preventing fires so that the spread of disease was limited.
4. Public toilets also available to everybody.
3. Public baths available to everybody at only a small fee.
2. Providing fresh water and sewage collection to all cities.
1. Building aqueducts (large lead pipes) to bring fresh water to towns.
systems and measures which prevented illnesses.…read more

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In 1364 people could be arrested
employed to remove waste from streets. Fines were also set up to stop people from throwing
People were not allowed to throw things into the streets, gutters were installed, rakers were
Butchers selling bad meat were punished and, in 1343 animals had to be killed away from towns.
London - 13 Hundred to 14 Hundred:
Mary's had a stone built sewer and a supply of clean water.…read more

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The Great Plague (1665)
The Black Death (1348 - 1350)
Charms, cutting crosses into foreheads to ward off the Devil and evil spirits.
amputations, wine and herbs (which were effective as anaesthetics).…read more

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Paracelsus (1493 - 1541): He also disagreed with Galen's ideas. He thought that disease was
"The Fabric of the Human Body".
also taught students who wanted to learn about medicine and anatomy. He published a book titled:
humans once he dissected human bodies and changed the way dissection was carried out. He
Andreas Vesalius (1514 - 1564): Realised that Galen had made mistakes about the anatomy of
Important individuals:
required some knowledge of the human anatomy, something which many women lacked.
doctors.…read more

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Galen's work.
doctors to realise that they needed to look to other ideas about anatomy and medicine rather than
knowledge of anatomy. These inviduals proved that Galen's work was wrong, which helped other
The work of Vesalius, Paracelsus, Pare and Harvey all contributed to help develop medicine and
books on his work
body by the heart and not created and used up by the liver, as Galen had stated.…read more

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Arabic and Turkish. In 1852 the government made vaccinations
By 1803 his vaccination was used in the USA. By 1805 Napoleon's soldiers were vaccinated. By
would turn into cows.
work, not believing that a disease from cows could be good for them - some even believed they
His work was rejected by the Royal Society so he published it himself. Some people opposed his
results and wrote up his findings.
suffer in any way from the disease.…read more

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During World War One the many problems with blood transfusions were solved because an anti-
Karl Steiner discovered that there were different blood groups in 1900.
Groups.
However, only some were successful because it was not known that there were different Blood
The first human Blood Transfusion took place in 1818.
patients to be put to sleep meaning less died from shock.
Shock started to become increasingly common.…read more

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