Learning diffuiculty 1

Normalization: Developed in Scandinavia in the 1960s. Providing a pattern of life as near normal as possible (Nirje 1970). Accommodation and activities are adapted to promote as ordinary a life as possible in the community; can participate in normal activities and

relationships, experience choice and have full access to social opportunities.

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Learning Disability - Answers Diet II: 2008
In the UK the total prevalence of Mental Retardation (learning disability) is
20-30 per 1000,
with 3-4 per 1000 having an IQ < 50.
MR IQ % Care needs
Mild <70 85 may need help under unusual stress
Moderate <50 10 need…

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one half of CA (IQ: 35
to 49)
Function at one fifth to one third of
CA (IQ: 20 to 34)
Function at < one fifth of
CA (IQ: < 20)
Slow in all areas Noticeable delays,
especially in speech
Marked and obvious delays; may
walk late
Marked delays in…

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simple activities and
Need direction and supervision May respond to regular
physical activity and
social stimulation
Can acquire
vocational skills for
Can perform tasks in
sheltered conditions
-- Not capable of self-care
Integrated into
general society
Can travel alone to
familiar places
-- --
NOTE: Additional problems with…

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Lesch-Nyhan by amniotic fluid enzyme estimation
Postnatal screening
Hypothyroidism (Appear normal at birth, becomes evident at 6 months with
growth failure,
puffy skin and lethargy)
Galactosaemia and Phenylketonuria
Lesch-Nyhan through hair sample enzyme estimation
Other preventative measures
Reduce head injuries: domestic and road traffic accidents, physical abuse
Folic acid supplementation…

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with a change in personality and a reduction in functional abilities.
Frontal and temporal lobe epilepsy can be associated with psychosis,
although the epilepsy
usually precedes the psychosis. The presence of genetic conditions
associated with psychosis,
particularly velocardiofacial syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome, should
also be
investigated. "Self-talk" is particularly common…

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population are hand-washing, checking and cleaning, but in adults with LD,
ordering is the
most common, with hand washing, cleaning and checking rarely seen.
6. Forensic
Mild LD have higher rates of criminal behaviour than general population.
This may be due
to family and social environment, impulsivity, suggestibility, exploitability,

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behaviour; shaped and maintained by the environmental consequences and
occurs in 20% of
LD children and adolescents and 15% of LD adults. Qureshi & Alborz
(1992) focused on
highly disruptive, seriously challenging behaviour and found a prevalence
rate of 5.7%. In a
similar study, Emerson et al (2001) found that…

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behavior in persons with MR. More long-term studies are needed6. ()
Valproate sodium may be useful for aggression in mentally retarded
patients, based on
anecdotal evidence (Ruedrich et al., 1999). A recent placebo-controlled
study showed efficacy
for valproate in a sample of non-retarded children and adolescents with
symptoms (Donovan…

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Self injury may be related to opiod regulation. The opiate antagonists
naloxone and
naltrexone may reduce self-injurious behaviour like head-banging and self-
(Thompson T. 1994 Opioid antagonist effects on self-injury in adults with
mental retardation:
response form and location as determinants of medication effects.
American journal of
mental retardation…

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than half of the infants infected with rubella during the first 2 months of
gestation have
congenital heart disease (CHD), usually vascular stenosis or patent ductus
arteriosus. CHD
is rarely seen with maternal infection beyond 11 weeks gestation. Up to
50% of individuals
with congenital rubella have resulting CNS abnormalities,…


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