History + Approaches

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  • History + Approaches
    • Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
    • Has ancient Greek roots: Hippocrates (thought mind/soul was in the brain, mind-body dualism), Plato (mind-body dualism,  used self-exam. to conclude who we are/what we know are innate), Aristotle (monism, observation, who we are what we know are acquired from experience)
    • Wilhelm Wundt: founder of scientific psych
      • focused on structure of mind, used introspection,called structuralism
        • G. Stanley Hall - founded APA, first President of APA
        • Edward Titchener - studied consciousness
        • Margaret Floy Washburn - first woman to have a PhD in Psych
    • Functionalism focuses on explaining behavior, how an organism uses its abilities to adapt to its environment
      • William  James - founder of functionalism
    • Behavioral Approach: behavioral reactions to stimuli, experience ?? learning
      • Ivan Pavlov (father of classical conditioning)
      • John Watson (classical aversive conditioning)
      • B.F. Skinner (father of operant conditioning)
    • Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Approach: unconscious instincts, conflicts, motives influencing behavior
      • Sigmund Freud (father of psychoanalysis)
        • Jung, Adler, Horney (psychodynamic psychologists, neo-Freudians)
    • Humanistic Approach:  concerned w/ individual potential for growth
      • Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow
    • Biological Approach: physiological + biochemical factors ?? behavior + mental processes
    • Cognitive Approach: how we receive, store + process information, think/reason, and use language
      • Jean Piaget (studied cognitive dev in children)
    • Evolutionary approach: how natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to survival + spread genes impact behavior, Darwinian approach
    • Sociocultural approach: how cultural differences affect behavior


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