Cognitive Approach Applied Psychology

  • Created by: finleyyy
  • Created on: 11-02-20 15:28
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  • Cognitive Approach
    • Approaches
      • Computer analogy
        • We input, process and ouput information like computers.
      • Reconstructive memory
        • Memory is reconstructed not reproduced. This means it can change- parts can be forgotten
      • Mediational Processes
        • stimulus - mediational processes - response. A mediational response is schema, priming and script
          • schema- mental packages that create shortcuts. Gained through experience. Categorises information- makes shortcuts.
          • Priming- when you see one stimulus, it affects your response to when it appears agin. It speeds up response.
          • Scripts- Learned through experience. Recall information of how to react in a situation.
    • Memory
      • Shortening
        • Parts that don't fit with schema are left out so what you remember is shorter
      • Rationalisation
        • Recalled but parts that don't fit with schema are distorted so that they make sense
      • Confabulation
        • Parts are made up to fill in gaps in memory. This fits with your schema
    • Types of priming
      • Repetition
        • You encounter the prime, if you encounter it agian, it will speed up response
      • Semantic
        • 2 Stimuli have similar features. Like laptop and computer.
      • Associative
        • Prie and later stimulus are related but not semantically. They are paired together. Like fish and chips.
    • Gender
      • Kohlberg theory
        • Gender is decided through ages 2-6. 3 stages. As soon as they fit into a group, they behvae according to this in-group
      • Scripts
        • Once gender script (and schema) is learnt, children lose interest in the other gender. They focus on their gender's behaviour.
    • Aggression
      • Priming
        • Exposure to a stimulus can influence how humans respond to a subsequent stimulus. eg video games
      • Hostile attribution bias
        • React aggressively if they think someone is going to do something to them. Defense.
    • Cognitive bias
      • Confirmation bias
        • Favouring information that confirms your belief or biases. Stop gathering information after this.
      • Hostile attribution bias
        • Identifies others behaviour is hostile even when ambiguous. React aggressively back.
      • Fundamental attribution error
        • Tendency to overemphasis dispositional factors while ignoring situational. Not thinking about reasons behind actions.


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