- Temporarily stores information from our senses
- If we don't pay attention to it, it disappears quickly through spontaneous decay.
- Has a limited capacity and a very limited duration
- Information is coded depending on the sense that it has picked up e.g. visual, auditory, tactile
- Has limited capacity and duration
- Research indicates that between 5 and 9 items can be held though capacity is increased by chunking
- Duration is limited to a maximum of 30 seconds.
- Mainly Acoustic coding (sound)
- Unlimited capacity and duration
- Mainly Semantic Coding
3 Main Types of LTM
Episodic Memory = information about events you've experienced - declarative memories (can be consciously recalled)
Semantic Memory = facts and knowledge we have learnt - declarative memory
Procedural Memory = knowledge of how to do things e.g. walking - cannot be consciously recalled.
Information arrives from the sensory register in its original form such as in sound or vision, and is then encoded in a form that STM can deal with. Inputs can be coded in several ways:
Visually = by thinking of the image of a platypus
Acoustically = by repeatedly saying 'platypus'
Semantically = by using a knowledge of platypuses
Case Studies to Learn
- Baddeley (1966) - coding in STM and LTM
- Sperling (1960) - Sensory Register
- Peterson and Peterson (1959) - duration of STM
- Bahrick et al (1975) - duration of LTM
- Jacobs (1887) - capacity of STM