Key definintions for Unit 2. Edexcel Psychology

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Sam Steer
  • Created on: 26-05-13 01:24
Preview of Key definintions for Unit 2. Edexcel Psychology

First 445 words of the document:
Glossary of terms:
Conscious: the conscious mind consists of everything inside
of our awareness. This is the aspect of our mental processing
that we can think and talk about in a rational way. The
conscious mind includes such things as the sensations,
perceptions, memories, feeling and fantasies inside of our
current awareness.
Preconscious: includes the things that we are not thinking of at
the moment but which we can easily draw into conscious
Unconscious: Things that the conscious mind wants to keep
hidden from awareness are repressed into the unconscious
mind. While we are unaware of these feelings, thoughts, urges
and emotions, Freud believed that the unconscious mind
could still have an influence on our behavior.
Id: is the personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy that works to satisfy basic
urges, needs, and desires. The id operates based on the pleasure principle, which demands
immediate gratification of needs. The id is the only part of personality that is present at birth.
Ego: is part of personality that mediates the demands of the id, the superego and reality. The ego
prevents us from acting on our basic urges (created by the id), but also works to achieve a balance
with our moral and idealistic standards (created by the superego). While the ego operates in both
the preconscious and conscious, it's strong ties to the id means that it also operates in the
unconscious. The ego operates based on the reality principle, which works to satisfy the id's desires
in a manner that is realistic and socially appropriate.
Superego: the component of personality composed of our internalized ideals that we have acquired
from our parents and from society. The superego works to suppress the urges of the id and tries to
make the ego behave morally, rather than realistically.
Defence mechanism: a tactic developed by the ego to protect against anxiety. Defense
mechanisms are thought to safeguard the mind against feelings and thoughts that are too difficult
for the conscious mind to cope with. In some instances, defense mechanisms are thought to keep
inappropriate or unwanted thoughts and impulses from entering the conscious mind.
Repression : acts to keep information out of conscious awareness. However, these memories don't
just disappear; they continue to influence our behavior.
Denial: an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Oral stage: The oral stage is the first stage of Freud's stages of psychosexual development, lasting
from birth to 18 months. According to Freud, the mouth is the primary erogenous zone through
which pleasure is derived. The major conflict issue during this stage is the weaning process, during
which the child is forced to become less dependent upon caretakers. A fixation at this stage can
result in problems with dependency or aggression.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

In order to resolve the conflict, the boy then identifies with his father. It is at this point that the
super-ego is formed. The super-ego becomes a sort of inner moral authority, an internalization of
the father figure that strives to suppress the urges of the id and make the ego act upon these
idealistic standards.
Central nervous system: The central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of the brain and spinal cord.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Brain Lateralisation: The human brain is divided into two hemispheres - left and right hemispheres.
Lateralization of brain function means that there are certain mental processes that are mainly
specialized to one side or the other. Most mental functions are distributed across the hemispheres
but there are specific processes that are specialized to one hemisphere. For example, both sides of
the brain perform functions related to language.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Secondary reinforcement: reinforcing only after the organism has been conditioned to find it
reinforcing. Eg money
Extinction: refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior
decreasing or disappearing.
Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period
of lessened response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer
associated, extinction will occur very rapidly after a spontaneous recovery.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Independent variable
Control groups
Nominal Data
Ordinal data
Interval data
Covert…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »