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Glossary of terms:


Conscious: the conscious mind consists of everything inside
of our awareness. This is the aspect of our mental processing
that we can think and talk about in a rational way. The
conscious mind includes such things as the sensations,
perceptions, memories, feeling and fantasies inside…

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Oral stage: The oral stage is the first stage of Freud's stages of psychosexual development, lasting
from birth to 18 months. According to Freud, the mouth is the primary erogenous zone through
which pleasure is derived. The major conflict issue during this stage is the weaning process, during
which the…

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In order to resolve the conflict, the boy then identifies with his father. It is at this point that the
super-ego is formed. The super-ego becomes a sort of inner moral authority, an internalization of
the father figure that strives to suppress the urges of the id and make the…

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Brain Lateralisation: The human brain is divided into two hemispheres - left and right hemispheres.
Lateralization of brain function means that there are certain mental processes that are mainly
specialized to one side or the other. Most mental functions are distributed across the hemispheres
but there are specific processes that…

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Secondary reinforcement: reinforcing only after the organism has been conditioned to find it
reinforcing. Eg money

Extinction: refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior
decreasing or disappearing.

Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period
of lessened…

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Independent variable
Control groups
Nominal Data
Ordinal data
Interval data


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