Biological Approach Edexcel

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Biological Psychology
    • Central Nervous System
      • Neurotransmitters
        • The effects of drugs on transmission
          • Dopamine pathways and reward
            • Nucleus accumbens/ ventral tegmental area
            • Addiction
        • Neurons
          • Electrical action potential along axon
            • Chemical signal at synapse
      • Brain areas
        • 4 lobes
          • Areas associated with aggression
            • Midbrain
            • Amygdala
            • Hypothalamus
            • Prefrontal Cortex
            • Raine et al - Key Study
              • PET Scans of NGRIs
                • Matched pairs design
                • Lower activity in prefrontal cortex
                • Lower activity in left amygdala
    • Evolution
      • Natural selection of random genetic mutations
        • Survival of those best adapted to their environment
          • Environment of Evolutionary Adaptation (EEA)
            • Stronger, aggressive males have an advantage
              • Hunting food
                • Spatial awareness linked to testosterone - useful when hunting over distance
              • Protecting family
              • Chosen by females
          • Live longer, pass on more genes
    • Freud's Psychodynamic Explanation of Aggression
      • Personality
        • Id -
          • Unconscious mind
          • Pleasure principle
          • Unconscious drives
            • Thanatos
              • Death instinct
                • Aggression to self and others
                • Catharsis - eg watching violent TV
            • Eros
              • Enjoyment of life
        • Ego
          • Reality principle - controls urges of id
        • Superego
          • Morality principle - right and wrong
    • Scanning Techniques
      • Computerised Axial Tomography
        • Multiple x-ray beams
          • Tell us about structure, not function
      • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Head is placed in electromagnet
          • Haemoglobin carrying oxygen repels the magnetic field
            • Deoxygenated haemoglobin follows direction of magnetic fiels
              • The scanner detects these changes
                • Most active areas use most oxygen (and glucose)
      • Positron Emission Tomography
        • Used By Raine et al (1997)
          • Radioactive molecule attached to glucose molecule (FDG)
            • Brain uses up glucose and radioactive atom breaks down, releasing positrons
              • Gamma rays are released and detected by scanner
    • Nature/Nurture
      • Twin Studies - shared environment or shared genes?
        • MZ Twins - 100 % genes
          • Brendgen et al, (2005) - Contemporary Study.  6 year-old twins
            • Genetic and Environmental factors in social aggression
              • Suggests genetic cause for  physical aggression
              • Suggests environmental cause for social aggression
        • DZ Twins - 50% Genes
        • Brendgen et al, (2005) - Contemporary Study.  6 year-old twins
          • Genetic and Environmental factors in social aggression
            • Suggests genetic cause for  physical aggression
            • Suggests environmental cause for social aggression
      • Adoption Studies - shared environment or shared genes?
        • Similarities with adoptive parents = nurture
        • Similarities with biological parents = nature
        • Cadoret and Stewart (1991) - 283 male adoptees
          • Criminal behaviour/antisocial personality in biological parents correlated with aggression, antisocial personality and ADHD in boys - nature
          • Adoption Study
          • Socioeconomic status and psychiatric problems in adoptive parents correlated with ADHD, aggression and antisocial personality in boys - nurture
    • Hormones and aggression
      • Testosterone - androgen hormone
        • Antenatal testosterone leads to increased spatial ability and aggression
        • Post natal testosterone stimulates growth of amygdala and hypothalamus
        • Castrated male rats - less aggression
          • Castrated rats injected with testosterone=increased aggression
          • Female rats given testosterone = more aggression
          • Castrated human sex offenders = loss of aggression
    • Practical Investigation - Correlation between spatial awareness and aggression
      • BBC spatial awareness test and 'duck hunt'
      • Ordinal data and relationship = scattergraph and Spearman's Rho
        • Compare observed r to critical value to gauge significance
  • Nature v Nurture - compare Freud's explanation and the Biological explanation of aggression
  • Key Question- What are the implications for society if aggression is found to be caused by nature and not nurture?

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Aggression resources »