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By using the principles of training as a
framework we can plan a personal
training programme that uses
scientific principles to improve
performance, skill, game ability and
physical fitness.
A successful training programme will
meet individual needs which are
personal fitness needs based on age,
gender, fitness level and the sport for
which we are training. A successful
training programme will also include
exercise in the correct heart-rate target
zone.…read more

Slide 3

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The key principles when planning a programme are:
Specificity ­ training must be matched to the needs of the sporting
activity to improve fitness in the body parts the sport uses.
Overload - fitness can only be improved by training more than you
normally do. You must work hard.
Progression ­ start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise
and keep overloading.
Reversibility ­ any adaptation that takes place as a result of training will
be reversed when you stop training. If you take a break or don't train
often enough you will lose fitness.…read more

Slide 4

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In planning a programme, use the FITT principles to add the detail:
Frequency - decide how often to train.
Intensity - choose how hard to train.
Time - decide for how long to train.
Type - decide which methods of training to use.
You should also consider the
principle of moderation. It is
important to have rest periods
which allow the body to adapt. Too
much training (overtraining) can
lead to injury.…read more

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In aerobic exercise, which is steady and not too fast, the
heart is able to supply enough oxygen to the muscles.
Aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness.
Anaerobic exercise is performed in short, fast bursts
where the heart cannot supply enough oxygen to the
muscles. Anaerobic training improves the ability of the
muscles to work without enough oxygen when lactic
acid is produced.…read more

Slide 6

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Circuit training involves performing a series of ·Continuous
exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each training involves
activity takes place at a 'station'. It can be working for a
designed to improve speed, agility, coordination, sustained period of
balance and muscular endurance. time without rest. It
improves cardio-
vascular fitness.
·Cross training involves using another sport or
activity to improve your fitness. It happens
when an athlete trains in a different
environment. For example a volleyball player
uses the power training for that sport to help
with fitness for long jump.
·Fartlek training or 'speed play' training involves
varying your speed and the type of terrain over
which you run, walk, cycle or ski. It improves
aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
·Interval training involves alternating
between periods of hard exercise and
rest. It improves speed and muscular
endurance.…read more


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