Italy 1861-1943

Key dates and a little bit of information on Fascist Italy and Mussolini rising to power with fascism, up until his defeat.

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  • Created on: 14-05-12 19:22
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Mussolini's Italy
Fascism: An Authoritarian & Nationalistic right-wing system of government and social
organisation ­ Extreme Right- Wing.
1861 - Risorgimento ­ Unification of Italy's states ­ Garibaldi & Carvour.
. New Kingdom proclaimed.
. Garibaldi fails to seize Rome.
1866 - Italy & Prussia fight Austria ­ Italy lost, Prussia won ­ French troops in Rome.
1867 - Garibaldi fails to seize Rome again.
1871 - Franco Prussian War ­ French troops withdrawn from Rome ­ Italy fully unified!
1882 - Only 25% of males can vote.
1890 - 90% of south had no roads - smallest steel production vs. Britain, France & Germany. = Weak
1912 - Most Adult Males can vote.
1914 - Mussolini thrown out of Socialist party because he wanted to join the war.
1915 - Treaty of London.
1917 - Russian Revolution - Communists overthrow Russia = fear of communist - turn to socialism...
1918 - All Adult Males can vote. .
. Attempt at revolution in Germany.
1919 - Jan 18 - Italian People's Party created (PPI) - represent Catholic ideas.
. Feb - Arditi (specially trained commando fighters) groups set up.
. March 23 - Mussolini set up Fascio di Combattimento (battle group) - 119 men.
. April 13 - Battle of Mercanti Street - 1st battle & victory against Socialists.
. May - 316 strikes - more than 10 a day.
. June - Socialists set up Soviet Republic.
. June 28 -Treaty of Versailles - `Mutilated Victory'
. Sep 12 - Gabriele D'Annunzio invaded Fiume
. Nov 16 - General Election.
. Communism `sweeping through Europe'
1919-20 - Biennio Rosso - Strikes, factory occupations + socialist activity = frightened Italian society.
1919 - Promised: Male + Female vote, 8 hour working day, Education for all, Peaceful foreign policy,
. abolition of obligatory military service, confiscation of property owned by religious
. organisations.
1920 - Dec 23 - D'Annunzio finally overthrown after 15 months.
1921 - Promised: Obligatory military service, no specific commitment to political structure, 8 hour
. working day with exceptions for agriculture + industrial requirements, no reference to
. religious property, citizens' freedom linked to nations interests.

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Mussolini's Italy
1922 - Oct 16 - Mussolini & 6 leading Fascists decide to take power.
. Oct 22-29 - March on Rome = Victory March rather than seize of power due to Kings fear.
. Mussolini asked and was given emergency powers for a year.
. De Stefani - appointed Minister of Finance - continues liberal `Free market' policies. .
Post War Economic boom. Exports rose, unemployment fell, taxes cut, reduced public
. spending, stimulated investment. - Mussolini claims credit.…read more

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Mussolini's Italy
1928 - Single Government Issue textbook created.
. National Syndacalist Organisations split up.
1929 - Teachers took Oath of loyalty - try to counter the Concordat (Increased religious influence).
. Lateran Agreement - Treaty, Concordat & Financial Settlement = Pope.
1930 - Fascio Giovanile del Littorio - all youths not at university (18-21).
. Archbishop of Milan publically praises Mussolini = 300 priests letters of complaint.
. March - National Council of Corporations.…read more

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Mussolini's Italy
. March - Mussolini invades Albania - little resistance.
. May - Pact of Steel - agree to fight with each other in war even if the other started it. = Bad .
not ready for war yet. Said would only be ready in 1943 but Germany did not listen. .
Aug -Attack on Poland imminent = Hitler demands Mussolini stands by Pact of Steel. .
Sep -Germany invades Poland = Britain + France declare war on Germany. Italy declares .…read more

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