Why did Mussolini Fall from Power in 1943 and 1945
- Entered WW2 in 1940 - disastrous effects, against public mood leading to dissent.
- Entered the despite knowing Italian forces not ready for war, stated in 1939 that they would be ready in 1943, intensifying the dissent.
- Mismanaged the War economy and War effort - armies in poorly supplied, economy in shreds, no planning
- Allowed Italy to be dominated by Germany - led to dissatisfaction in the public (they didn't like German control)
- Did not realise the damage he had done - did not realise his vulnerable position, leading him to lose the support of the Fascist Grand Council.
- By 1944, he had lost his leadership qualities that once helped him to consolidate his power - meaning that the Salo Republic was very weak.
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Why did Mussolini fall from power in 1943 and 1945
- Muss. was betrayed by his former supporters - notably the King and the Fascist Grand Council
- Germany was losing the war - if they were winning, public mood would be different (link to Abyssinia --> victory = national pride.)
- Muss. was made the scapegoat of the failings - in fact, many others were to be blamed for the situation of the country.
- The Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 promoted his fall in the same year, and the advancement of them through Italy and the fall of Hitler caused his second fall in 1945.
Example 24 mark question (- taken from AQA June 2010 paper)
"How far was Mussolini responsible for his own dismissal from power in 1943 and 1945?"
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