As History Mussolini's Italy

This is the whole course in my notes - good luck in the exams!

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Problems of the south -> very poor
-> 4/5 could not read or write
->Disease and early death common
-> people often rebelled -> 1893 Fasci rioted so badly put Sicily under siege
Political problems -> Kingdom of Italy a democracy -> elections and parliament -> corrupt and
->few had the right to vote -> elections rigged by government
->MPs fought with eachother -> government bribed them
->few Italians had confidence in the system -> were willing to rebel.
Problem of the pope -> Before unification ruled large area of central Italy, papal states-> land taken
away, left with the Vatican
->disliked government, banned catholics from participating
->Millions obeyed -> left a whole generation ignorant of politics
Economic problems ->On the surface Italy prosperous -> Fiat -> hydro-electric power through dams
in the alps
->Italy was very poor -> ½ population farmers -> frequent fighting between
wages and working conditions
->Discontent and violence in towns and cities -> as industry grew -> so did
the slums -> workers joined political parties such as socialists who promised better
->Many Italians emigrated to America "third Italy"
Italy 1860-70 -> Made up of 8 separate states, each with own ruler and system
Kingdom of Sardinia -> Victor Emmanuel II
Venetia -> Austria
Lombardy -> Austria
Parma -> Austria
Modena -> Austria
Tuscany -> Austria
Papal states -> Catholic Church
Naples and Sicily -> Spanish bourbon monarchs
Risorgimento -> "Rebirth" unification from 1861-71
The masses were not given the Governments were weak -> The masses were not given the
vote at first, and so failed to MPs formed governments by vote at first, and so failed to
identify with the new state : competing for support with identify with the new state :
other deputies ­ often done

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­ 25% 1912 ­ most adult males meaning frequent change as ­ 25% 1912 ­ most adult males
allegiances changed. Average
length of government 1.…read more

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Took over Lombardy and other Central states
->Austria kept venetia
Garibaldi (radical nationalist) -> Popular with the masses
->Organised an "expedition" to unify Italy and "March on Rome"
->Joined a peasant revolt in Sicily and conquered Sicily and Naples
-> Piedmont troops took Papal States to link with Garibaldi
-> Garibaldi handed over his territory to Piedmont -> "pincer movement"
Victor Emmanuel II (King of Piedmont -> King of New Italy)
->1861 -> New Italy proclaimed
->1866 -> Italy and Prussia fight Austria.…read more

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PSI -> Italian Socialist Party -> 1913 their support grew winning 20% of total vote ->wanted to
achieve a socialist state RADICALS
Nationalists -> painters, journalists, poets - Wanted a more vigorous authoritarian government "our
country is nothing without conquest"
Futurists -> a group of people against the liberal view -> strong supporters of nationalism-> wanted
to build an empire promoting violence, action and conflict along with a roaring motor car -> wanted
radical change.…read more

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Began a series of riots, demonstrations and strikes, more than 10 a day in may -> socialists set up
"soviet republic" in June in Florence
-> ex soldiers marched the countryside taking over land -> Italy -> verge of revolution?
FIUME 1919 -> Gabriele D'annunzio, poet, invaded port of fiume given to Yugoslavia after WW1-
italia Irredenta
->Small town gave way without a fight -> occupied for 15 months undisturbed ->
seen as an exciting place to live
-> D'annuzio raided cargo ships and towns…read more

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Abolition of obligatory military service Obligatory military service
Heavy and progressive tax on capital; Taxes proportional to income, not confiscatory
confiscation of unproductive income
The nationalisation of all arms and munitions Nationalised firms privatised; encouragement for
factories; confiscation of 85% of war profits national wealth through individual initiative;
government spending cuts
The confiscation of property belonging to No reference to Church property
religious organisations
A foreign policy of peaceful competition among Complete unification for Italy with a major role in
civilised nations the Mediterranean
FASCIST…read more

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Problems: ->Mussolini one of only 4 fascists in cabinet -> only 35 fascists in 535 member chamber of
->Fascism had won support of only 7% of votes
-> Mussolini's new coalition government faced same problems as previous governements
lasting on averaged 1.8 years.…read more

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encouraged to do charity introduced which lira by imposing heavy emphasised gender
work restricted women to taxes on bachelors roles, girls
10% of workforce discouraged from
extended 1938 higher edcuation
->women were ->1939 -> raised 230 ->quota not applied to
encouraged to serve on lira by imposing heavy low paying jobs i.…read more

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Roman Catholic
Pope bitter at how they had been treated during Risorgimento (prevented public voting
"against catholicism" -> lost power and land -> Rivalry?)
->Church Controlled a lot of education and welfare provision and financial institutions
-> Illiterate peasants particularly in the south relied on priests for news and views -> many looked up
to Catholicism for leadership
-> The Church and State had been in conflict since "unification" in 1870s -> loss of land and papal
->Mussolini was an atheist and former socialist…read more

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Catholicism recognised as the sole religion of the state
-> Pope appoints Bishops, state has the power to veto them.…read more


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