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MUSSOLINI ­ 1922

PROBLEMS OF ITALY

Problems of the south -> very poor
-> 4/5 could not read or write
->Disease and early death common
-> people often rebelled -> 1893 Fasci rioted so badly put Sicily under siege

Political problems -> Kingdom of Italy a democracy -> elections and…

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only 2% of males at first, 1882 through corrupt practices only 2% of males at first, 1882
­ 25% 1912 ­ most adult males meaning frequent change as ­ 25% 1912 ­ most adult males
allegiances changed. Average
length of government 1.8 years

Governments were weak -> Unification was dominated…

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->Took over Lombardy and other Central states
->Austria kept venetia

Garibaldi (radical nationalist) -> Popular with the masses
->Organised an "expedition" to unify Italy and "March on Rome"
->Joined a peasant revolt in Sicily and conquered Sicily and Naples
-> Piedmont troops took Papal States to link with Garibaldi
->…

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->PSI -> Italian Socialist Party -> 1913 their support grew winning 20% of total vote ->wanted to
achieve a socialist state RADICALS

Nationalists -> painters, journalists, poets - Wanted a more vigorous authoritarian government "our
country is nothing without conquest"

Futurists -> a group of people against the liberal view…

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Began a series of riots, demonstrations and strikes, more than 10 a day in may -> socialists set up
"soviet republic" in June in Florence
-> ex soldiers marched the countryside taking over land -> Italy -> verge of revolution?

FIUME 1919 -> Gabriele D'annunzio, poet, invaded port of fiume…

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Abolition of obligatory military service Obligatory military service

Heavy and progressive tax on capital; Taxes proportional to income, not confiscatory
confiscation of unproductive income

The nationalisation of all arms and munitions Nationalised firms privatised; encouragement for
factories; confiscation of 85% of war profits national wealth through individual initiative;
government spending…

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MUSSOLINI'S FIRST TWO YEARS

Problems: ->Mussolini one of only 4 fascists in cabinet -> only 35 fascists in 535 member chamber of
deputies
->Fascism had won support of only 7% of votes
-> Mussolini's new coalition government faced same problems as previous governements
lasting on averaged 1.8 years.
->Had little…

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->women were ->1933 ->quotas ->1939 -> raised 230 ->Schools
encouraged to do charity introduced which lira by imposing heavy emphasised gender
work restricted women to taxes on bachelors roles, girls
10% of workforce discouraged from
extended 1938 higher edcuation

->women were ->1939 -> raised 230 ->quota not applied to
encouraged…

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95% of population Roman Catholic

Pope bitter at how they had been treated during Risorgimento (prevented public voting
"against catholicism" -> lost power and land -> Rivalry?)

->Church Controlled a lot of education and welfare provision and financial institutions
-> Illiterate peasants particularly in the south relied on priests for…

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-> Catholicism recognised as the sole religion of the state
-> Pope appoints Bishops, state has the power to veto them.
-> Clergy banned from belonging to political parties
-> Religious education made compulsory in secondary schools
-> Church marriages recognised as legal
-> Church given total control over divorce…

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