First 1319 words of the document:
Italy 1919 to 1943
Why Fascist Italy had to limit Social and Cultural Political
Key People: Benito Mussolini (Appointed prime minister of Italy in
October 1922, removed in 1943) diversity
1925 The Opera Nazionale Dopolavaro set up and December 1925 Passing of Legge Fascistissime
Regime: Fascism (One Leader controls all elements of society) co-ordinated leisure time for adults. By 1932, it (banned opposition political parties)
1861 Italy founded as a liberal democracy
including uneven economic division and controlled all football clubs, 1350 theatres and 8,265
regionalism, which Mussolini reacted upon. libraries. By 1926 Parliament has no control over policy
Rise to Power 1914 Mussolini founds Fascism required sacrifice to the state. New Italians 1926 OVRA (Secret Police) established, staffed by November 1926 Military Tribunal for the Defence of
Il Popolo d'Italia, had to be made through re-education and only 375 agents. the State (political opposition could be tried and
1919 Italy did not receive the `rich reward' it supported entry into war elimination of other views. punished with military procedures and tactics)
expected, and in particular the `Italia irredenta' 1926 Opera Nazionale Balila formed for boys 6-18
(unredeemed Italian-speaking parts of Austria- 1915 Italy enters the Socialism / Communism were wrong. (By 1937, it had 7 million members) May 1928 New electoral law which allowed only the
Hungary.) First World War Picole Italiane for girls aged 9-14, Giovani Italiane for wealthy to vote (those who paid taxes of more than
1861 to 1922 problems had been a result of Liberal girls aged 15-17. 100 lire a year.) Italians entitled to vote dropped from
Unemployment reached 2.5 million 1919 Gabrielle 10 million to 3 million.
National debt due to America's demanding war D'Annunzio seizes Fiume, In the 1930s, teachers and University professors had
loans holding the city for 15 to swear the Oath of Loyalty. After 1936, a single 1929 95.3% of vote rigged to show the Fascists
Country had to be united, at a time of war, so there
People started to blame the weak government could be no conflict or argument internally. If so, history textbook became compulsory which detailed received 98% of the vote
Italy's determination to be great would be Italian contribution to arts and financial loans to be
Many believed the Bolshevik revolution of Russia undermined. paid to Italy by USA, Britain and France. By 1939 170,000 Fascists had been expelled from
Mussolini's Italian Fascist
would spread to Italy. Trade union membership the Fascist party because of their extremism, standing
Party had only won 35
grew; the socialist Trades Union had 2 million party membership at 2.6 million. There was no violent
members by 1920. Communism scare years = purge.
Biennio Rosso (1919-1920) Economic
29 October 1922 - King Victor Emmanuel III offers The Partito
Existence of MSVN, OVRA and the supportive army Religious and Racial
Benito Mussolini post of prime minister. In the Nazionale Fascista
(PNF) meant Mussolini didn't have to worry about a
same month he marched on Rome. With Liberal Italy's inception, Rome was not part of
potential workers uprising.
the new state, so the pope and Italy had been in
1923 - Employers could fix wages conflict for 60 years.
He argued in Outlining what Fascism was Problems
favour of Italy 1925 Vidoni Pact banned trade unions and the right Mussolini appears as the protector of the Catholic
entering the war to strike. Breaking down relationship between Church. Out of fear of being suppressed, like in the
1932 Benito Mussolini releases `The Doctrine of Fascist movement was Bolshevik revolution, they turned to Mussolini for
and as a result was workers and employers.
Fascism' which outlines a `retrospective' view of disunited divided and saving.
expelled from the
Fascism. It said controlled by `Ras'
Socialist Party. 1925 Employers could fix conditions of employment
Little faith in the Pope Pius XI was pope from 1922 to 1939, offering
"Observes the future and development of little resistance to Mussolini.
government after 1926 Ministry of Corporations established
"Everything previous years controlled the corporate state, Mussolini was
inside the state, "Anti -individualistic" which "stresses the minister. The signing of the Lateran Treaty in February 1929
nothing outside Only 7% of the provided the Pope with absolute sovereign power
importance of the state"
the state, electorate backed over the Vatican City, plus a Concordat which outlined
Actions taken benefitted employers more than
nothing against "the growth of empire"..."is an essential sign of Mussolini and the the relationship between Fascism and Catholicism
employees employees kept in line out of fear of
the state" health" Fascists. Catholicism was now the state religion in Italy.
repression by labour laws.
In 1935, Mussolini criticises Anti-Semitism in
Why was Fascism popular? Ex-Soldiers
Militarism, order and authority.
The Cult of Personality
Establishing Dictatorship As Mussolini and Hitler grew closer together, anti-
DIME PIMP Industry Owners Semitism crept into the Fascist utopia. In 1937, Pope
Named himself as "Il Duce" or `The Chief'.
Disaster at War They could keep profits.
November 1922 "Emergency Powers" to Pius XI expresses his outrage at Mussolini's alliance
Mussolini encouraged this cult, compared to Stalin who
Ineffective Government Traditionalists Rule by Decree for 12 months and introduction of `inhuman' treatment.
arguably allowed it to happen in the USSR.
Mussolini the "actor" Fascism showed great strength and
might for Italy. December 1922 Creation of Fascist
Economic Nightmare Grand Council (unites the Ras) Fascist slogan: "Mussolini is always right" The pope's outcry on Mussolini's Anti -Semitism
Propaganda Particularly men active and violent. could've been devastating for Mussolini's image
Instead of Communism January 1923 Fascist militia created to
Elites intimidate communists and opposition (because if the Pope was right on this spiritual
Mosaic Appeal Retained the status quo of matter, the Duce was wrong.)
November 1923 Acerbo Law passed Propaganda showed Mussolini in a 1931 Legal
People's Actions aristocracy.
positive light, as a role model. He
(25% of vote = 2/3 majority seats in code made it
assembly) was described to be the best at a crime to
June 1924 Aventine Secession
everything. criticise Only the air force backed Mussolini, The King
Matteotti Crisis and the Aventine Secession
December 1925 Legge Fascistissime Mussolini. maintained true Loyalty from "The Royal Army"
passed, which banned opposition political He was who retained the traditional army salute to him.
1924 Chamber of Deputies election success had been party due to intimidation, under the 1925 Mussolini censors and
Bochini System (a free and public vote where the voters raised their hands to cast, so the parties untouchable.
controls the press.
MSVN could intimidate voters to lower their hands.) October 1926 Formal decree for `One- (December) The Press law stated
party state' media censored and FGC
Giacomo Matteotti (Socialist Party deputy) collected evidence and published in an article that only registered Fascist
controls electoral candidates
named "The Fascists Exposed" journalists could write for the
In June 1924, Matteotti was abducted and murdered by the Ceka, a Fascist gang of thugs.
Blame imposed on Mussolini.
Mussolini ordered an investigation into the abduction however the Socialists were sceptical AJP Taylor "Mussolini was a vain, blundering boaster who acted his way to
and a third of the chamber (opposition) withdrew and 100 deputies met separately. (Aventine
In fear of the Socialist's plans, the king decided to keep Mussolini in power. Over time the M. Robson "The newspapers also suggested that the Duce was infalliable"