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Self fulfilling prophecy Becker + Keddie Teachers evaluate pupils
in regard to speech, social class and dress. Labelling can lead to the
self fulfilling prophecy as students believe what they're told they
Lower sets + streams Ball middle class are in higher bands, so
teachers have higher expectations and taught them in a different
way. Keddie higher sets access more knowledge than lower sets.
Anti-school subcultures By being in anti-school subcultures this
can gain status from peers as they believe they can't gain status
from school. Willis the lads he observed were deliberately failing
themselves in recognition of the inevitable manual working future
that awaited them.
Material deprivation economic poverty
Halsey Lack of financial support is the most important thing
preventing working class achieving.
Cultural deprivation Lack of Norms and values
Douglas lack of parental interest is the most important in effecting
achievement. This may have been due to inconvenient shifts,
meaning parents had less time to aid children.
Social class position within society
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Sugarman Working class lived for immediate gratification whilst
middle class planned their future.
Chinese, African and Asians are more likely to be higher achievers
than whites, whilst afro-Caribbean; Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are
more likely to underachieve.
Labelling leads to the self fulfilling prophecy.
Ethno-centric curriculum schools teach dominant culture of
Racism intuitionally and internationally
Wright (1992) Teachers said they gave equal opportunities but
Asian Girls got less attention and Asian boys more likely to be told