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SOCIOLOGISTS/FACTORS.
ETHNICITY:
GENETIC

HERNSTEIN: Found genetic link between ethnicity and IQ. Found that in America some ethnic minority
groups had higher IQ's than others.

SWANN REPORT : Argues with HERNSTEIN there is no link between IQ and ethnicity. Took into
account other factors, like social factors and biased testing.



INSIDE…

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GENDER
INSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS

TEACHING=FEMINISED: e.g. more FEMALE TEACHERS, TEXT BOOK examples, COURSEWORK (more
suited to girls, organised, longer period of time)

NATIONAL CURRICULUM: Forces GIRLS to do more MALE SUBJECTS

LEA (Local Education Authority) & GOV: ENCOURAGE GIRLS to do NON TRADITIONAL subjects.



OUTSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS

SUE SHARPE (feminist):…

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SOCIAL CLASS
INSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS

LABELLING/ SELFPROPHECIES

STREAMING/BANDING

OUTSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS

DOUGLAS: PARENTAL INTEREST affects children's achievement the most.

BERNSTEIN: WORKING CLASS = RESTRICTED CODE DISADVANTAGED
MIDDLE CLASS = ELABORATE CODE ADVANTAGE

SUGARMAN: DEFFERRED and IMMEDIATE gratification

CULTURAL CAPITAL:
BOURDIEU: MIDDLE CLASS = likely to SUCCEED because they have LANGUAGE,…

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STREAMING, BANDING + SUBCULTURES
STREAMING: Involves separating students from abilities into different classes.

STREAMING/BANDING: Leads to different expectations and access to knowledge.

STREAMING/BANDING COMBINED WITH LABELLING: a possible formation of SUBCULTURES.

SUBCULTURES: Pro-school or anti-school

WILLIS: Studied working school `LADS' who REJECTED SCHOOL.
Lads wanted to do MANUAL WORK in…

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FUNCTIONALIST VIEWS
GENERAL VIEW:

Education = MERITOCRACY
Education teaches SKILLS for WORKPLACE
Educations helps sort people for specific jobs = ROLE ALLOCATION
Teaches CORE VALUES through SECONDARY SOCIALISATION

PARSON'S VIEWS:

School is FOCAL SOCIALISING AGENCY
A BRIDGE between FAMILIES and ADULT ROLES
Passes on UNIVERSALISTIC VALUE of ACHIEVEMENT
SELECTS children…

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MARXIST VIEWS
MARXIST VIEWS IN GENERAL

Education prepars childen for the WORLD OF WORK in terms of SKILLS and VALUES
Education JUSTIFIES INEQUALITY
Education passes on RULING CLASS IDEOLOGY which SUPPORTS CAPITALISM

ALTHUSER
Sees education as part of the IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARATUS
Passes on RULING CLASS IDEOLOGY that society is…

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