AQA SOCIOLOGY UNIT 2 EDUCATION

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  • Created on: 21-05-13 13:54
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SOCIOLOGISTS/FACTORS.
ETHNICITY:
GENETIC
HERNSTEIN: Found genetic link between ethnicity and IQ. Found that in America some ethnic minority
groups had higher IQ's than others.
SWANN REPORT : Argues with HERNSTEIN there is no link between IQ and ethnicity. Took into
account other factors, like social factors and biased testing.
INSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS
GILBORN: Found Afro-Caribbean students had been negatively labelled, resulting in a self-fulfilling
prophecy of failure.
WRIGHT: Found even though members of staff were committed to equal opportunities they treated
Asian girls with less attention, unintentionally.
NON ETHNOCENTRIC/EUROCENTRIC
EDUCATION SYSTEM UNINTENTIONALLY RACIST
OUTSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS
BALLARD AND DRIVER: Family differences.
SWANN REPORT: Found language wasn't so much a barrier for later generations.
LANGUAGE
BROKEN FAMILIES: Afro-Caribbean pupils = MATERIAL DEPRIVATION/CULTURAL DEPRIVATION
POSITIVE ROLE MODELS: for Afro-Caribbean GIRLS, from independent Afro- Caribbean women.

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GENDER
INSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS
TEACHING=FEMINISED: e.g. more FEMALE TEACHERS, TEXT BOOK examples, COURSEWORK (more
suited to girls, organised, longer period of time)
NATIONAL CURRICULUM: Forces GIRLS to do more MALE SUBJECTS
LEA (Local Education Authority) & GOV: ENCOURAGE GIRLS to do NON TRADITIONAL subjects.
OUTSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS
SUE SHARPE (feminist): Found GIRLS PRIORITIES HAVE CHANGED, gone from wanting family in the
70's to wanting career in 90s.
POLICIES: EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES for girls and boys.
POSITIVE GIRL ROLE MODELS: MORE.
FEMENIST MOVEMENT: Changed girls expectations.…read more

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SOCIAL CLASS
INSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS
LABELLING/ SELFPROPHECIES
STREAMING/BANDING
OUTSIDE SCHOOL FACTORS
DOUGLAS: PARENTAL INTEREST affects children's achievement the most.
BERNSTEIN: WORKING CLASS = RESTRICTED CODE DISADVANTAGED
MIDDLE CLASS = ELABORATE CODE ADVANTAGE
SUGARMAN: DEFFERRED and IMMEDIATE gratification
CULTURAL CAPITAL:
BOURDIEU: MIDDLE CLASS = likely to SUCCEED because they have LANGUAGE, SKILLS + ATTITUDES
CULTURAL DEPRIVATION: WORKING CLASS
MATERIAL DEPRVATION:
HARKER: Poor quality, overcrowded housing, LESS SPACE TO STUDY, increased RISK OF BULLYING,
DISRUPTION moving from house to house, HEALTH, stress, mental illnesses LINKED TO
UNDERACHIEVEMENT.…read more

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STREAMING, BANDING + SUBCULTURES
STREAMING: Involves separating students from abilities into different classes.
STREAMING/BANDING: Leads to different expectations and access to knowledge.
STREAMING/BANDING COMBINED WITH LABELLING: a possible formation of SUBCULTURES.
SUBCULTURES: Pro-school or anti-school
WILLIS: Studied working school `LADS' who REJECTED SCHOOL.
Lads wanted to do MANUAL WORK in the FUTURE.
RESENTED CONFORMERS in school.
ANTISUBCULTURE REFLECTED from FATHERS, BROTHERS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD.
Willis believed ANTI-SUBCULTURE stems from EXPECTATIONS of JOBS in the future.…read more

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FUNCTIONALIST VIEWS
GENERAL VIEW:
Education = MERITOCRACY
Education teaches SKILLS for WORKPLACE
Educations helps sort people for specific jobs = ROLE ALLOCATION
Teaches CORE VALUES through SECONDARY SOCIALISATION
PARSON'S VIEWS:
School is FOCAL SOCIALISING AGENCY
A BRIDGE between FAMILIES and ADULT ROLES
Passes on UNIVERSALISTIC VALUE of ACHIEVEMENT
SELECTS children for APPROPRIATE ROLES as it is MERITOCRATIVE
Helps create VALUE CONSENSUS
NEW RIGHTS:
Some people are NATURALLY more TALENTED
Favour an education based on MERITOCRACY
Education should SOCIALISE pupils into SHARED VALUES.…read more

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MARXIST VIEWS
MARXIST VIEWS IN GENERAL
Education prepars childen for the WORLD OF WORK in terms of SKILLS and VALUES
Education JUSTIFIES INEQUALITY
Education passes on RULING CLASS IDEOLOGY which SUPPORTS CAPITALISM
ALTHUSER
Sees education as part of the IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARATUS
Passes on RULING CLASS IDEOLOGY that society is `FAIR'
Education REPRODUCES OBEDIENT WORKFORCE.
BOWLES + GINTIS
Correspondence between pupils experience of SCHOOL and ADULT WORK.…read more

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