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Cultural Deprivation - outside school factor

where working class pupils are seen as lacking the right attitudes, values, language & knowledge for educational sucess

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Material Deprevation - outside school factor

Where working class pupils lack the money outside the home to get the correct resources to do well in school e.g. school books

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Cultural Capital - outside school factor

where the middle class are in a better place to take advantage of the choices offered in a marketisatised education system.

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self-fulfiling prophecy - in school factor

this happens after a student is labelled - in either a negative or positive way. this is where the student turns into what they have been labelled as e.g. when a student is labelled as a faliure then they believe this and become one.

most working class students are labelled badly

most middle class students are labelled well


KEDDIE    and   BECKER believe that teachers label students based on what they believe the 'ideal' student is.

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Polarisation - in school factor

when teachers label students they go to a certain pole. Theres the bad pole and the good pole, people who have been labelled badly go to the bad side and people have been labelled well go to the other.

working class people go to the 'bad' pole

middle class people go to the 'good' pole

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Streaming - inside school factor

Streaming is when pupils are put in classes according to 'ability', most working class people with bad labels are put into low streams whereas middle class people are put into higher streams


BALL found out that people in higher streams were more likely to be of a higher class, and that they were taught in a different way than people in lower streams.


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Student Subcultures - inside factor

there can be both pro and anti school subcultures. people who have been labelled badly are normally polarised into being in an anti-school subcultures, whereas people who are labelled well then they will become pro- school

there are 4 types of subcultures:

-Non-Conformists - 3rd group WOODS says more likely to be working class HARGREAVES bottom streams more likely to be non conformist

-Innovators - 2nd group

-Conformists - 1st group (most popular)

-Rebels - 4 th group - hate conformists and innovators.

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educational triage

the process whereby schools sort pupils into 'hopeless cases', 'those who will pass anyway' and 'those with the potential to pass' then they concentrateon the last group so they can boost the schools league tables.

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BERSTEIN said there were two types of speech

the elaborated code - spoken by the middle class and teachers

the restricted code - spoken by the working class

he also says that this causes working class students to do badly at school as they do not understand their teacher.

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