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Geography- river landscapes and
processes
Water cycle:


Water is stored in clouds, oceans, seas, rivers, mountain hills, valleys,
underground, ice caps, and glaciers

97% from ocean and seas

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Condensation- is the change in matter of a substance to a denser phase, such as
a gas to liquid. Condensation of vapour to liquid is opposite of evaporation

Evapotranspiration- is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration.
Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air. Transpiration
accounts for…

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Drainage basins:





Rivers originate at the source and flow downhill until the meet the sea at the mouth
Along the way smaller rivers may join at a confluence- these smaller river are called
tributaries
In special circumstances rivers may split into several smaller channels called distributaries
The area drained by…

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Bed load- Sediment or other material that slides, rolls, or bounces along
a stream or channel bed of flowing water. Smaller sand sized particles
are bounce along by salutation
Suspended load- fine silt and clay particles suspended In water and
transported downstream
Dissolved load- rocks which are soluble, like limestones…

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Upper middle and lower course:


Upper course:
Interlocking spurs are formed when a winding river cuts down into the land and their are
large rocks that river has to flow around
Channel is lined with large angular rocks
The velocity of the river is slow because of water resistance from…

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Waterfall




1. The waterfall flows over more resistant cap rock
2. A deep plunge pool is formed at the base of waterfall
3. Splash back erodes the softer rocks behind the waterfall
4. Eventually overhang collapses
5. Waterfall retreats upstream
6. A gorge of recession is formed

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Meanders:


a bend or curve, as in a stream or river
vertical erosion is important in upper course but not middle course
Because river has gentler gradient.
With a gentler gradient river develops wide meanders swing from side to side of
valley
Water flows fastest on the outside of meander…

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