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  • Created by: Hugo
  • Created on: 01-03-10 00:42

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Geography- river landscapes and
Water cycle:
Water is stored in clouds, oceans, seas, rivers, mountain hills, valleys,
underground, ice caps, and glaciers
97% from ocean and seas

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Condensation- is the change in matter of a substance to a denser phase, such as
a gas to liquid. Condensation of vapour to liquid is opposite of evaporation
Evapotranspiration- is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration.
Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air. Transpiration
accounts for movement within a plant.…read more

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Drainage basins:
Rivers originate at the source and flow downhill until the meet the sea at the mouth
Along the way smaller rivers may join at a confluence- these smaller river are called
In special circumstances rivers may split into several smaller channels called distributaries
The area drained by a river and its tributaries is called a drainage basin, usually marked by a
ridge of higher land called a watershed.…read more

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Bed load- Sediment or other material that slides, rolls, or bounces along
a stream or channel bed of flowing water. Smaller sand sized particles
are bounce along by salutation
Suspended load- fine silt and clay particles suspended In water and
transported downstream
Dissolved load- rocks which are soluble, like limestones are transported
in solution.
V ­ Shape valleys and interlocking spurs:
The valley sides are worn back by slumping and surface run off, which occurs during rainfall.…read more

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Upper middle and lower course:
Upper course:
Interlocking spurs are formed when a winding river cuts down into the land and their are
large rocks that river has to flow around
Channel is lined with large angular rocks
The velocity of the river is slow because of water resistance from the large rocks in the bed
River is clear due to it only being rocks- suspended load and not much suspended load
Middle course:
4 ways in which river transports its load are:
Traction…read more

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1. The waterfall flows over more resistant cap rock
2. A deep plunge pool is formed at the base of waterfall
3. Splash back erodes the softer rocks behind the waterfall
4. Eventually overhang collapses
5. Waterfall retreats upstream
6.…read more

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a bend or curve, as in a stream or river
vertical erosion is important in upper course but not middle course
Because river has gentler gradient.
With a gentler gradient river develops wide meanders swing from side to side of
Water flows fastest on the outside of meander bend
If channel is right up against edge of valley side to collapse forming a small river cliff
We call this lateral erosion
Opposite an undercut bank is a lower bank made of shingle sand.…read more


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