GCSE geography A (AQA) Restless earth

A mindmap about the restless earth

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  • Created by: Kelleigh
  • Created on: 29-05-13 09:45
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  • The restless Earth
    • Tectonic plates
      • oceanic crust
        • thinner, between 5-10km thick
        • rocks made of basalt
        • younger
        • can be renewed and destroyed
        • very dense
        • can sink
      • continental crust
        • older
        • lighter
        • cannot be renewed or destroyed
        • rocks made of granite
        • thicker, between 25-90km
        • can't sink
    • Fold mountains
      • 1. Rivers erode material from the land and transport it to the sea
      • 2. The sediment is deposited in the sea and sinks to the bottom
      • 3. The weight of the water and other layers compress the material so they turn to sedimentary rock
      • 4. 2 Continental plates move together
      • 5. The layers of rock are folded up and down
      • 6. The crumpling produces anticlinesa nd synclines of fold mountains
      • The Alps, Central Europe
        • Adaptations
          • trees and man-made defenses are used to protect against avalanches and rock slides
          • animals are grazed in high areas as the soils are poor
          • tunnels have been created for fast and straight access, e.g. Lotschberg base tunnel (Bernese alps in Switzerland)
        • Farming
          • goats farmed for milk, cheese and milk
          • sunnier slopes have been terraced to plant vineyards (e.g. Lavaux, Switzerland)
        • Tourism
          • 100million  tourists visit the Alps each year
          • 70% of tourists visit the slopes for many activities in summer and winter
          • New villages have been created to cope with tourists, eg. Tignes in france
          • Ski runs, ski lifts, cable cars, holiday chalets and restaurants pepper the landscape
        • HEP
          • Berne area (Switzerland)
            • Switzerland gets 60% of its electricity is from HEP stations in the Alps
        • mining
          • salt, iron ore, gold, silver and copper were mined but it has declined
        • forestry
          • Scots pine is abundant as it is resilient to goats, which kill native tree saplings
            • trees are logged and sold to make furniture
      • Uses of fold mountains
        • Hydro-electric power
          • Steep sided mountains and high lakes - ideal for generating HEP
        • Tourism
          • Spectacular scenery attracts tourists
          • In winter, people do skiing, snowboarding, ice climbing
          • In summer, walking is popular
          • Tunnels have been created to create straight and fast roads -improved communication
        • farming
          • higher slopes aren't good for crops, so they're used for grazing
          • lower slopes are used for crops
          • steep slopes are terraced to grow crops
        • Mining
          • major source of metal ores, although access is difficult
        • forestry
          • good for growing certain trees, eg. conifers
          • used for fuel,building materials, paper and furniture
    • Volcanoes
      • Sheild
        • lava flow
        • hot and runny lava
          • less explosive, little ash
        • constructive boundary
        • no pressure so flat shape
          • gentle sides
        • frequent eruptions
        • one vent
      • composite
        • secondary vents
        • narrow base
        • ash and lava
          • very explosive with lots of ash
        • destructive boundary
        • lava is forced up so it holds its shape
        • steep sides
        • does not erupt often
      • Mount st helens, USA, 18th may 1980
    • Supervolcanoes
      • yellowstone, USA
      • caldera, magma chamber
    • Earthquakes
      • Kobe, japan, 17th january 1995
      • Sichuan, china, 12th may 2008
      • primary effects
        • THE collapse of buildings
        • people trapped
        • displacement of ground
        • death and injuries
      • secondary effects
        • disease
        • homelessness
        • loss of trade
        • little infrastructure
      • ricter scale and mercallli
    • Tsunamis
      • tsunamis are a specific secondary effect
      • can have devastating effects in coastal areas
      • It's a huge wave where the entire depth of the sea is set in motion by an earthquake
        • This displaces the water above and creates the wave
      • Boxing day 2004 - Asian tsunami (indian ocean)
        • Causes
          • 1. The Indo-Australian and Eurasian plate collide at a destructive plate boundary
          • 2. The Indian plate subducts below the Eurasian plate, as it is more dense
          • 3. Stress and pressure build up over time between the 2 plates, as they slide past each other, until the Eurasian plate buckled and jerked upwards causing an earthquake under the Indian ocean
          • 4. The movement of the sea bed (crust) displaced by about 20ft upwards billions of tonnes of water above, creating a huge wave
          • 5. The water column split into 2 and spread out, with one wave travelling out to sea and the other to the shoreline
          • 6. As the tsunami wave came to the shore the wave height increased and surged in land
        • Primary effects
          • Everything was destroyed in Banda Aceh, apart from a mosque, with 3/4 of the tsunamis victims in Sumatra
          • 650,000 were injured
          • 2 million made homeless (in Sumatra over 50,000 people made homeless)
          • 220,000 died, in 14 countries around the indian Ocean including THailand, Sumatra, Sri Lanka and South Africa - A lot were drowned or hurt by the water's power
          • Infrastructure destroyed. E.g. In Sri Lanka, a train was derailed by the force of the water, killing over 1000 people
          • Many public buildings, e.g. hospitals and schools were destroyed
        • Immediate responses
          • Response was slow; people were not treated for days, many injuries got infected
          • People searched for friends and relatives with their bare hands
          • Appeals were launched for international aid. The UK promised £75 million and public donations of £100 millionwe re raised in the first few weeks
          • Medical teams, rescue workers and forensic scientists arrived from countries all over ther world
          • People were caught unaware - holidaymakers on beaches in Phuket, Thailand fled as the wave approached, they tried to get to higher storeys in hotels
          • 10 year old Tilly Smith whilst on holiday saved the lives of hundreds by warning them about the tsunami, having learnt about them in geography
          • A priority was for the provision of international aid, including: teams of sniffer dogs, heavy equipment, medical staff, provisions of water purifying tablets, blankets, setting up shelters, tents, etc
        • Long term responses
          • An education programme started in order to teach people about how to respond to a tsunami
          • A year later, £372 million had been donated by the british public, but only £128 million had been spent by the disasters emergency committee (DEC) - there were issues with collecting large sums of money
          • There was a need to bury the dead - often in mass graves to stop the spread of diseases
          • Lots of people needed counselling and support
          • The DEC spent £40 million on rebuilding projects in Sri Lanka and Indonesia
          • There were plans to spend a further £190 million in the 2nd year, building 20,000 houses for 100,000 homeless people
            • Houses were rebuilt using different materials and designs to make them less easy to destroy
          • AN early warning system in the Indian ocean was set up in June 2006, costing $30 million
          • Industries had to be rebuilt, eg. fishing and tourism
    • ocean trench
      • formed through the downwarping of the continental plate

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