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Language
· Characterisation
· Description
· Links to society
· Pacing…read more

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Formulaic Phrases
Epithets
-all together struck the
-Odysseus of the many white surf with their blades
devices
-Athena of the flashing Apt vocab.
eyes Homer uses such
devices as
describing the stag
Language which Odysseus
slays in book 10 as
a monster, this
makes Odysseus
seem more powerful
Puns
Similes Superlatives
E.g. Notion (when talking of
-It was like scene at a farm when his false name): The -King Alcinous, most
cows in a drove come home full fed Ancient Greek for no one illustrious of all your
from the pastures to the yard and sounds, when run together people
are welcomed by all their frisking becomes the word for
calves `resourcefulness'.
Nobody returns in book 21.…read more

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Detail
A poem read in the ancient Appropriate depth of
world was not a visual Ddescription depending
display, Homer used vivid on emphasis
detail and in depth description
eg Book 10 " I climbed a rocky
height and on reaching the top I
was able to see the smoke rising
from the distant place where C's
Description
house lay in a clearing among the
dense oak-scrub and forest trees.
That glimpse I had of reddish
smoke...."
Ie picture painting with words
Bringing the story to life
Homer describes Odysseus'
stabbing of Polyphemus' eye in
vivid graphic detail. Greeks
loved gory detail!
-twisted it in his eye until the
blood boiled up around the
burning wood...…read more

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Makes audience empathise Realism of Relationships
with characters
Tension between men and
Made Odysseus' men seem very Odysseus
human, they often break down in E.g. Odysseus' men open the
tears like little girls. bag of winds because they
E.g. When they see the wisps of did not trust him
smoke on Circe's island
Characterisation
Contrast between characters
Homer uses the contrast between the
characters in his story to make it more Variety of types
exciting and realistic of characters
Gods, goddesses, men
-In Book 10 Odysseus wants to take his
men back to Circe's palace but good, bad etc The
Eurylochus refuses. Odysseus is angry mythical and magical
but the rest of his crew remain calm. world compared to the
world of men eg Circe…read more

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Agriculture Zeus Xenia
Using references to farming methods and The God of guests and hosts, the
animals, he connects with the Ancient Greek theme of Xenia is constantly brought
farmer. up in books 9 & 10. Odysseus
-when the sun began to drop, towards the stabbing his host in the eye, for
time the ploughman unyokes his ox example.
Links help
Religion listeners to
Sacrifices, Links to society relate to and
fully understand
prayers etc the text.
Sailing
Homer connects with the War
Education
Ancient Greek seafaring Ancient Greek nations were
men. constantly at war with each other, the
Practical and
-Like the mast of a black Ancient Greek man was no stranger
moral lessons to warfare
ship of twenty oars, a
broad bottomed -My bronze spear went right through
merchantman such as him, and with a bellow he fell in the
makes long sea voyages dust and was dead.…read more

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