Classical Civilisation - Athens

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Everything you could possibly ever need to know for the OCR Athens exam! I hope this helps :).

The focus of this option is the everyday life of an ancient Greek citizen in one of the most flourishing city states in ancient times. Candidates should have a basic understanding of the concept of democracy as practised by Athens.

Candidates are required to have knowledge and understanding of the following main areas of Athenian life:

• religion – its role and importance in the lives of the Greeks, including a number of festivals;

• the family in Athens – the roles and duties of its individual members and their homes;

• entertainment in Athens – the symbolism and appeal of these activities in the context of Athenian society.

Specific Topics:

The gods

Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Poseidon, Hephaistos, Apollo, Artemis, Athene, Aphrodite, Ares, Dionysos (and his companion maenads and satyrs), Hermes.

Their responsibilities and how they are typically represented in Greek art.

Temples

Religious functions: the position of the altar, the cult statue, use by worshippers.

Sacrifice

Its purpose, surroundings, officials, animals, the ritual and its significance.

The Panathenaia

The programme, the participants, its importance to the Athenians, the religious and political content; the Parthenon frieze showing the Panathenaia.

The City Dionysia

Participants, programme, judging. The religious, political and theatrical content.

Tragedy and comedy

Actors: typical roles, masks, costumes and acting styles of tragic and comic actors and chorus members.

The theatre: the shape, layout, position and use in performance of the skene, proskene , orchestra, altar, parodoi,  the mekhane,  the ekkuklema , scenery, and sound effects.

The Oikos

The husband: his duties and role as kyrios , property rights, legal rights.

The wife: her status as kyria , duties within the household, property rights.

Symposia: organisation, guests, entertainment, purposes.

An Athenian house: the basic design (courtyard,

andron and gynaikon) , layout, furniture, and the appearance of the rooms and areas.

Slaves: skilled and unskilled, ways to become a slave, the purchasing of slaves, duties inside and outside the home for both male and female slaves, opportunities for freedom.

Education

The education of boys and girls in preparation for their adult roles.

The paidotribes , the grammatistes , the kitharistes , the paidagogos,  the palaistra.

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[Athens] Classical Civilisation




Classical Civilisation
Athens




Contents:

The Gods 2­7
Worshipping the Gods 8 ­ 10
The Panathenaia 10 ­ 11
The City Dionysia 12 ­ 13
Drama: Tragedy and Comedy 14 ­ 16
The Oikos 16 ­ 22
Education 23 ­ 24
Democracy 24


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[Athens] Classical Civilisation




Classical Civilisation
Athens
The Gods
Zeus

Responsibilities
o King of the gods
o King of everything above the underworld
o Welfare, justice and the protection of travellers
Symbols
o Thunderbolt
o Eagle
Representation in Greek Art
o Sometimes seated on a throne
o Wore a crown
o…

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[Athens] Classical Civilisation


Other
o Wide and large eyes
o Jealous of Zeus' affairs

Demeter

Responsibilities
o Grain and agriculture
o Seasons
Symbols
o Ear of corn
o Fruit and flowers
Representation in Greek Art
o Corn somewhere
Other
o Often accompanied by her daughter Persephone
o Sister of Zeus…

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[Athens] Classical Civilisation


o Brother of Zeus

Hephaistos

Responsibilities
o Technology
o Blacksmiths
o Craftsmen (e.g. sculptors)
o Metal/metal working
o Fire
o Volcanoes
Symbols
o Hammer
o Anvil
o Tongs
Representation in Greek Art
o Surrounded by weapons and jewellery
o Holds an axe
o Riding a donkey
o…

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[Athens] Classical Civilisation


o Quiver of arrows
o Lyre
o Bun in his hair
o Laurel wreath
Other
o Twin sister is Artemis

Artemis

Responsibilities
o Hunting
o Archery
o Childhood and chastity
o Wild animals
o The Moon
Symbols
o Bow and arrow
o Chariot pulled by stags
o…

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[Athens] Classical Civilisation


o Goatskin breastplate (aegis - Medusa's head)
o Helmet and shield
o Small snake at base of spear
o Cape
Other
o Daughter of Zeus
o Sometimes will lead armies into war

Aphrodite

Responsibilities
o Love
o Pregnancy
Symbols
o Birds (typically doves, geese or sparrows)
Representation…

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[Athens] Classical Civilisation


Hermes

Responsibilities
o Messenger of the gods
o Travel
o Business
o Weights and measures
Symbols
o Winged helmet
Herald's staff
o Winged sandals
Representation in Greek Art
o Staff had two snakes
Other
o Patron of herdsmen, thieves, graves, the lyre and
messengers

Dionysos

Responsibilities
o…

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[Athens] Classical Civilisation


o Satyrs
Deities of woods and mountains
Half man, half goat
Bushy tails, snub noses, pointed ears and large
phalluses




Worshipping the Gods
Temples

A god or goddess was worshipped at a holy sanctuary
This was land set apart as sacred to that deity, marked off by…

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[Athens] Classical Civilisation


Pronaos - entry porch into the naos, which housed the
most valuable offerings
Opisthodomos - was at the back of the naos and
housed the rest of the temple's offerings




Sacrifices




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Comments

Holly

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Thank you so much! This is an amazing resource - very grateful ***

Livie

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Thank you so so much! My notes were so confusing and this is written and presented so well! Its going to be my Bible through Classics GCSE!

Steff

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thank you very factful a lot of help


 

Sparrow977

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This is a brilliant resource, thank you!

StefAreYouDeaf

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THANK YOU SO MUCH

k man oliver123

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overated

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