Classical civilization - Homer

This includes summary for each chapter, sorry if there is spelling mistake I do not have much time when I was doing this, and what I found most useful that you can do is highlight the night before your exam or in the morning :) Good luck all x

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Classical Civilisation ­ Homer, The Odyssey
Epic Poem
It is an epic poem (long story about a hero who has many adventures as
he sets out to achieve his goal)
Odysseus' goal is to get back home to Ithaca after ten years of fighting at
`The Odyssey' was composed to listen to.
Poem has to have one clear storyline, memorable characters and
description which beings the scenes alive. It must have some serious
ideas to ponder over and some excitement.
The poet has to ensure that the characters are easily recongisable and
that there are clear stages in the plot. It is also that the poet should keep
his audience alert by making them feel suspense, fear or pity and that the
poem doesn't become monotonous.
Certain words and phrases are repeated, and set scenes recur, as
though the poet has worked out a formula, which fits the rhythm of the
verse and can be reused in different situations.
The Homeric hero ­ is physically impressive, often describe as godlike
Is fiercely loyal to his home and kingdom and
longs to be home
Commands, respect & loyalty from those around
Can endure suffering over a long period of time
Supported by Gods (as Gods only support
Book 5
The second council of the gods: Athena appeals to Zeus, the cloudgatherer,
to help Odysseus, imprisoned for 7 years on Calypso's island, Ogygia, and
reminds him that his son Telemachus is at Pylos and Sparta in search of
news of his father, and the suitors plan to ambush him on his return. Zeus tells
Athena she has already planned Odysseus' revenge on the suitors and it is in
her power to rescue Telemachus.
Zeus sends Hermes to announce his divine decision to Calypso, that she
must release Odysseus, who is to travel home alone and without the gods'
help, to make his own raft, and after many hardships to arrive at Scherie,
where the Phaeacians will receive him like a god, will give him more treasures
than he could have ever got from Troy, and send him safely home.
Hermes obeys and reaches Calypso's cave flying like a seagull and wonders
at the delightful sight. Calypso invites him inside and ­ after a quick breach of
etiquette ­ offers him due hospitality, nectar and ambrosia, while Odysseus is
weeping at the shore, full of nostalgia. Hermes eats and drinks before he
answers Calypso: Odysseus is destined to reach home.
Calypso resentfully obeys, declaring that the gods always hate it when
goddesses fall in love with mortal men and that she will not help Odysseus on
his way, as she has no ship, though she will willingly give him directions.

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Odysseus is weeping for his home on the shore ­ though at night he has to
sleep with Calypso. Calypso pretends she is willing to let him go with all her
heart, disguising from him the true reason for her change of heart. She tells
him to make a raft and she will stock it with the necessities and send a
favourable wind. Odysseus is mistrusting and asks her to take an oath that
she is not planning some mischief against him.…read more

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The picture is odd, as Odysseus is crying and sighing on his own while
staring to the sea
We know how to story is going to end as Zeus has already predicted it
Xenia is being repeated (eating and drinking before discussion)
Details of raft making. Odysseus's skills, he is a real hero using his own
hand to make things (get audience involve/ relate.…read more

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Odysseus deliberates how to supplicate her, conscious that his naked state might
offend her. He decides to keep his distance at the cost of having his supplication
ignored, and makes his supplication with crafty and subtle words instead. He
flatters Nausicaa, relates his troubles and requests her help.
Nausicaa tells him that all troubles come from Zeus and he must endure them!
She promises help and tells her maids to bathe him.…read more

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Odysseus admires the Phaeacians city. He reaches the palace and Athene tells
him of Alcinous and Arete's background. Athena repeats the importance of
winning Arete's sympathy in his supplication. Arete is honoured and wise and
settles men's disputes. She then returns to Marathon.
The palace of Alcinous is described in detail, as well as the servants' industry and
skill. The women's weaving work is emphasised. The orchard and vineyard of the
palace are described in detail.…read more

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have heard of Odysseus. He announces his name: "I am Odysseus, son of
Laertes. The whole world has heard of my stratagems and my fame has reached
the heavens."
He then begins his tale: with 12 ships he reaches Ismarus and sacks the city of
the Cicones. He divides the plunder equally among his men like a good leader, but
`the fools of his crew' refuse to leave. They outstay their welcome and meanwhile
the Cicones summon reinforcements and a battle ensues.…read more

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He then falls into a disgusting,
drunken sleep, his neck twisted to one side. The men blind the Cyclops with the
heated stake, the blinding likened to the boring of a ship. The Cyclops' eye hisses
and sizzles like a hot axe dipped in water. He shrieks terribly and calls to the other
Cyclopes. They come and inquire who is harming him, and he replies "Nobody".
The Cyclopes leave and Odysseus laughs to himself. Then he breaks his head to
think of an escape plan.…read more

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Odysseus finally tell so him and the king can be friends
A man holds dearest is father land and family
Odysseus and his crew take over Cicones, take money, women, eat
everything. It was morally acceptable as it is a Greek way to win.…read more

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­ then it slows again as Odysseus starts to talk about
xenia and how he is hoping to be treated as we think Odysseus is getting the
situation under control, then it speeds up very quickly when the Cyclops eats
a couple of the men. Changing from such a slow pace to a fast one so
quickly, makes the audience feel on edge, uneasy, as they do not know what
will happen next as the pace is so temperamental.…read more

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He comes across a stag, which he kills and transports to the
ship by making a rope. He encourages his grieving men individually and they feast
all day.
The next day, he divides up his men into two parties, puts Eurylochus in charge of
the second and they draw lots. Eurylochus' party sets out and reaches the palace
of Circe. Tame wolves and lions fawn on them like dogs fawning on their master
at the table, while Circe sings and weaves inside.…read more


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