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Weather and climate
Structure of the atmosphere

Troposphere: Zone closest to the Earth and is the zone where most weather processes take place. It has the
highest temperature as solar radiation warms the Earth surface which, in turn, warms the air above it.
Temperature drops by 6.4C with every 1000m.…

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1. The solar constant: varies slightly and affects longer-term climate rather than shorter term weather
2. The distance from the sun: The eccentric orbit of the Earth around the sun can cause up to 6%
variation in the solar constant
3. The altitude of the sun in the sky:…

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Planetary surface winds
Wind: The horizontal movement of air on the Earth's surface. It is a result from the difference in air pressure
and always moves an area of high to low pressure. When the air temperature of an area increase the air
expands and rises reducing the air pressure.…

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Temperature: The mean temperature of the British isles in summer is below average for its latitude. Although
daily maximum temperatures can reach 30C the monthly averages do not exceed 18C due to cooling
influence of the Atlantic Ocean. In winter, the average temperatures are above freezing a result of the…

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1. Where warm tropical maritime air from the south meets with cold polar maritime air from the
North. The warmer, less dense air rises above the cold air and the warm air is removed by the jet
stream in the upper atmosphere winds.
2. This twisting vortex then forms…

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Origin: The air that descends from the upper
atmosphere is cooler, drier and denser than the air at
ground level. As it descends it warms and can easily
hold on to the moisture it has retained leading to limited
condensation and reduced precipitation. This stable air
can cover several…

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Climate of tropical region
Temperature: Mean monthly temperature is 26-28C and have little range. The length of day and night is
roughly 12 hours. Night time temperatures rarely fall below 18C and daytime temperatures can reach 35C.
It has high humidity and constant temperatures which can be oppressive.
Precipitation: Rainfall…

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MEDC: Hurricane Katrina Death toll: 1,830 Date: 23rd August 2005
Causes: Disturbance in the pressure field of the tropics, the Bahamas provided the warm sea and the minimal wind
shear. Developing as a depression and then rapidly developing into a strong hurricane. It was lifted to the north west

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Responses: Five coastal were declared disaster zones by the government. Burmese government were reluctant to
allow western aid agencies into the country. They are ruled by military junta with poor human rights and have little
contact with other countries. After international pressure to accept foreign aid however the delay worsened…

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Vehicle control in inner urban areas: Athens and area of 2.5km in the centre is traffic free. Promotion
of park and ride. London, congestion charge so vehicles have to pay if they wish to drive into the
centre. Driving restrictions to prevent people driving though the city on one day…




These are very helpful thanks bbs x

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