History, cold war notes

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UNIT 1- Seeds of conflict
Tensions between USA and USSR 1920-1930
Russia pulling out of WW1
Nazi-Soviet pact
USSR refused to pay back those debts that the previous USSR govts had owed to the West
Bolshevik govt killed Tsar and his family who were cousins of British Monarchy
Allies had previously tried to defeat communist government
Activities of Comintern created tension
Strains in Grand Alliance
Leaders in alliance are Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin, Disputes over opening of 2nd front
against Germany and Disputes over Poland borders
Broken relations by superpowers by 1945 as Emergence of 2 superpowers and Common enemy was
defeated
Unit 2: Development of cold war 1945-1953
Legacy of World War 2 made cold war more likely
USA emerged as a superpower and USSR had the ability to enforce will on Europe
WW2 created a power vacuum in Europe between USA and USSR
End of the war had resulted in large parts of Europe left without governments
Europe was left economically devastated as 16 million people were left homeless
Truman didn't inform Stalin about the nuclear bomb used in 1945 on Japan
Attitudes of superpowers towards Europe (1945)
Soviet attitudes = Occupy E.Europe to strengthen soviet influence, Expected economic aid from USA
and regain areas which were lost, Establish buffer zones to prevent invasion (had been invaded 3x
before), Destruction from war (20 million people had died) so Stalin wanted to safeguard ad rebuild/
USA attitudes (Truman replaced Roosevelt in 1945)= Truman had different views-believed no
compromise was possible, Policy of containment, More interest in Europe economy- free market
GB attitudes (clement Attlee replaced Churchill in 1945) = Weak after World War 2, hard to contain
communism without the help of USA, By 1946 USA and GB policies were against threat of USSR.
Development of cold war in Europe between 1945-1950
Stage 1: 1945
Yalta conference- February 1945
Agreements:
establishment of UN
USSR join war against Japan return for econ rights in Manchuria + S.half of Sakhalin island
Border of Poland

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Free elections in E.Europe
Division of Germany, Austria + Berlin into zones of occupation
Disagreements:
Polish govt in exile in London return where Comm govt had set up?
Potsdam conference- July 1945
Disagreements of amount of reparations given to USSR and details of boundary zones
Truman angry as Stalin arrested non-com leader of Poland
GB + USA alarmed at comm. spreading over E.…read more

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Causes:
By Yalta and Potsdam Germany had to be divided into four zones on a temporary basis
West (USA) benefited frm Marshall aid +The East(USSR) low living standards
February 1948- formation of trizonia, separate W.Germany established June
Western powers changed currency in west Berlin to Deutsche mark.
June 1948 Stalin closed road, rail and canal links with West Berlin
Results:
West responded by airlifting food and fuel supplies for 2 mill+ Berliners flown into the city.…read more

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The Traditionalists- All western writers before the 1970s, and many since, blamed USSR and its
"attempt to impose its ideology on the rest of the world".
The Revisionist- The Revisionists blame USA as engaged in a war to keep countries open to
capitalism and American trade. Revisionists said that Truman's use of the atomic bomb without telling
Stalin was the start of the Cold War.…read more

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Traditional or orthodox view- Place responsibility on the north which was acting under
Stalin's instructions in a bid to spread communism. US involvement in the war was to prevent
aggression.
2.) Revisionist views - Stalin too cautious to risk an escalation of conflict with the USA,
supported by memoirs of Khrushchev who had told sung to think over the decision of
invading the south. Stalin didn't agree with invasion as avoided any commitment of troops.
3.…read more

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Eisenhower won, highly critical of Truman' foreign policy for failing to stand against communism. He
was supported by Dulles. Eishenhower's new policy the `New Look', a hard line approach to foreign
policy won support in the USA. Key features were:
Military should be used to contain communism
Policy of `massive retaliation', use/ threat of nuclear action against any aggressive moves.
Policy of brinkmanship in the use of nuclear weapons, threaten to use weapon if they didn't
back down carry your actions through.…read more

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Hungary forced to leave, Nagy became leader being unable to satisfy demands
Nagy introduced multi-party democracy and to leave the Warsaw Pact. This was too much for
USSR who sent troops back in to Hungary and set up a new govt under Kadar. Order restored but
at loss of over 35,000 lives.
Berlin 1958-62
West Germany underwent economic miracle whereas East Germany suffered so ppl crossing
over to West Germany.…read more

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USA first to create atomic bomb, 1945 so initially had nuclear monopoly, so wanted to develop plan
where USA shares knowledge of nuclear technology but no other nation allowed to develop atomic
weapons, however was unsuccessful. August 1949 USSR exploded own atomic bomb. With both
superpowers equally matched they both raced to develop a super bomb. USA developed the
hydrogen bomb and tested it in 1952 which portrayed its huge destructive capabitlity. Nine months
later USSR tested their superbomb which used lithium.…read more

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Accept terms from second letter from Khrushchev received on the 27th October adding the
demand for the USA to withdraw its missiles from Turkey.
Kennedy publicly accepted the first message and ignored the second on his brothers advice, who had
to secretly inform Soviet contacts that missiles would be withdrawn from Turkey. 28th October Radio
Moscow announced missile bases were to be dismantled and returned to the USSR. The crisis was
over.…read more

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Yet China failed to secure Soviet agreement on other aspects of policy:
Mongolia remained a Soviet sphere of influence
Stalin refused to give aid to conquer Taiwan as Stalin feared provoking USA
No joint revolutionary strategy devised for East Asia
The Treaty in action: The Korean War, 1950-53
Mao believed only way to unite Korea= military action but in 1950 scared of USA action jeopardising
Mao's plan to invade Taiwan. Mao' decision for 70000 Korean volunteers to N.Korea during second
half of 1949.…read more

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