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UNIT 1- Seeds of conflict

Tensions between USA and USSR 1920-1930

Russia pulling out of WW1
Nazi-Soviet pact
USSR refused to pay back those debts that the previous USSR govts had owed to the West
Bolshevik govt killed Tsar and his family who were cousins of British Monarchy
Allies had…

Page 2

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Free elections in E.Europe
Division of Germany, Austria + Berlin into zones of occupation

Disagreements:

Polish govt in exile in London return where Comm govt had set up?

Potsdam conference- July 1945

Disagreements of amount of reparations given to USSR and details of boundary zones
Truman angry as Stalin arrested…

Page 3

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Causes:

By Yalta and Potsdam Germany had to be divided into four zones on a temporary basis
West (USA) benefited frm Marshall aid +The East(USSR) low living standards
February 1948- formation of trizonia, separate W.Germany established June
Western powers changed currency in west Berlin to Deutsche mark.
June 1948 Stalin…

Page 4

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The Traditionalists- All western writers before the 1970s, and many since, blamed USSR and its
"attempt to impose its ideology on the rest of the world".
The Revisionist- The Revisionists blame USA as engaged in a war to keep countries open to
capitalism and American trade. Revisionists said that Truman's…

Page 5

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1.) Traditional or orthodox view- Place responsibility on the north which was acting under
Stalin's instructions in a bid to spread communism. US involvement in the war was to prevent
aggression.
2.) Revisionist views - Stalin too cautious to risk an escalation of conflict with the USA,
supported by memoirs…

Page 6

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Eisenhower won, highly critical of Truman' foreign policy for failing to stand against communism. He
was supported by Dulles. Eishenhower's new policy the `New Look', a hard line approach to foreign
policy won support in the USA. Key features were:

Military should be used to contain communism
Policy of `massive…

Page 7

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stationed in Hungary forced to leave, Nagy became leader being unable to satisfy demands
Nagy introduced multi-party democracy and to leave the Warsaw Pact. This was too much for
USSR who sent troops back in to Hungary and set up a new govt under Kadar. Order restored but
at loss…

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USA first to create atomic bomb, 1945 so initially had nuclear monopoly, so wanted to develop plan
where USA shares knowledge of nuclear technology but no other nation allowed to develop atomic
weapons, however was unsuccessful. August 1949 USSR exploded own atomic bomb. With both
superpowers equally matched they both…

Page 9

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2.) Accept terms from second letter from Khrushchev received on the 27th October adding the
demand for the USA to withdraw its missiles from Turkey.

Kennedy publicly accepted the first message and ignored the second on his brothers advice, who had
to secretly inform Soviet contacts that missiles would be…

Page 10

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Yet China failed to secure Soviet agreement on other aspects of policy:

Mongolia remained a Soviet sphere of influence
Stalin refused to give aid to conquer Taiwan as Stalin feared provoking USA
No joint revolutionary strategy devised for East Asia

The Treaty in action: The Korean War, 1950-53

Mao believed…

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