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THE IMPACT OF THE DICTATORIAL REGIMES ON THE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY:
RUSSIAN AGRICULTURE
Agriculture: central to Russian life.

Underlying factors: climate ­ imposed limitations on Russian farmers waste land unsuitability of a large
part of Russia for cultivation limited urban market.

State = a considerable force for change ­ consider:…

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o Central planning remained dominant philosophy
o Shied away from political changes which could have created the necessary freedom for
agriculture to flourish
o Virgin Lands Scheme
o Agriculture still a problem after the fall of Khrushchev

THE IMPACT OF THE DICTATORIAL REGIMES ON THE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY:
RUSSIAN AGRICULTURE…

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o Discontent showing amongst private serfs
o Crimean War rural unrest
"It is better to abolish serfdom from above than wait until it will begin to abolish itself from
below" Alexander II, 1856
Measures taken:
main principles of the Emancipation Act:
o freed peasants could become proprietors of land
o…

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migration decreased after 1909
farms were smaller
the large estates provided the bulk of food ­so still attachment to collective agriculture
political power of peasants limited by changes to the Duma
continuing unrest, growth of SRs, increased population ­ land hunger

More or less successful than 1861?
increase in production…

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Results:
o 1922 saw a turning point ­ progress in production
o Greater efficiency
o Based on insecure foundations

Collectivisation, 1928 ­ 41:
introduced in 1928 alongside FiveYear Plans
October 1927 Party Conference called for `a decisive offensive against the kulaks'
Requisitioning started again: Winter of 192728
16th Party Congress…

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Production and productivity were depressed due to labour shortage, animal and equipment shortage,
low agr. prices and high consumer prices
Biological yields weren't working
Kolkhozes were left lagging behind

Main elements of agricultural change under Khrushchev:
Collective farms made larger
o Greater central management
Higher prices paid for produce and…

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Facilitated by limited control of imports, allowing entrepreneurial freedom and moderate taxation
under Von Reutern (186478)
Could be seen as a period of economic and social development
Contrast to post1880s economy, which is more in line with Soviet era
Late 1870s ­ Russia hit by economic downturn due to tariffs…

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Later Tsarist Development
Changes made after 1905 were built upon the foundations laid by Witte
Agricultural development used the railway network to market produce and built upon Witte's policy
of a Peasant Land Bank
Witte's low taxes on the rich meant at least some capital for investment when foreign capital…

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Oil = 41% of 1913 level
Wheat = 43% of prewar levels
o Typhus, cholera and scarlet fever: short medical supplies
Lenin basically had the task of recreating modern industry which could defend itself

Comparison between Lenin and the Tsars
preAlexander II and Lenin era are similar in terms of…

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started in Oct 1853 between Russia and Turkey
fought on 3 fronts: the Crimean front Baltic pacific
embarrassing for Russia ­ they were losing badly
Alexander II brought it to an end ­ Treaty of Paris 1856: Russia no longer had access to the
Mediterranean
High casualties: 250,000 allies vs.…

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G.

Thanks - this was great!

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